Bam citadel largest adobe building in world

Bam Citadel

Magnificent Bam citadel

Magnificent Bam citadel is located in the southeast of Lut desert and near the city of Bam. This unique adobe structure is one of the most famous attractions of Kerman province, which is registered in the list of UNESCO World Heritage and National Monuments of Iran. Bam citadel has been one of the defense structures and throughout history it has protected the eastern regions of Iran like a strong fence.

This structure was considered the largest adobe structure in the world until the terrible earthquake of 2002 in Bam.

The great Bam fortress has a citadel that is located in its highest part; Because of the grandeur of this citadel, the whole fortress was called a citadel. Bam citadel was located on the Silk Road and provided the possibility of connecting Iran with Central Asia, the Persian Gulf and Egypt.

 The ancient city of Bam citadel is a collection of tall buildings that includes two parts, the serfs and the government. Each structure has its own function. This citadel has an area of about 18,000 square meters and walls with a height of 6 to 7 meters are built around it. These walls are nested and separate the center and different parts of the citadel.

The historical magnificent Bam citadel, which is more than 2,500 years old, has played an important role in the history and culture of Iran. This citadel has repeatedly prevented invaders from attacking Iran.

History of Bam Citadel

There are many speculations about the age of the bass drum; Some date it to the Achaemenid period and some to the Parthian period. A large number of buildings in it were built in the Timurid to Qajar period. According to historical writings, the age of this citadel reaches two thousand years ago, and the clays discovered in the ruler’s house are a proof of this claim.

 Multiple building layers indicate successive constructions in different periods. The architecture of the citadel is one of the cases of estimating the building’s age. The porch of the citadel mosques is similar in dimensions to the structures of the 4th to 7th centuries, i.e., the Samanid to Seljuk period. The architecture of the entrance arch of the citadel is also similar to the style of the Sassanid era and it is attributed to this period. Documents about the campaigns of the first Sassanid king (Ardeshir Babakan) in the late Parthian period to Bam region.

The architecture of the magnificent Bam citadel

Bam Citadel is built in the shape of a small city with a strong fortress to prevent enemy infiltration in addition to establishing security in the city. The magnificent Bam Citadel is similar to many examples in Central Asia and Mesopotamia and has the structural features of a Hippodamian city. According to the traditions of the Medes and Parthians, the citadel was built on a high hill to make it difficult for enemies to access it and to increase the control over the surrounding areas. The materials used in this 2,500-year-old adobe castle are clay, straw and raw clay, which has preserved its original skeleton over the centuries. The strength and grandeur of the magnificent Bam citadel caused it to be called “the citadel of God created” in the Qajar period.

This region has high heat and low humidity, so the citadel was built in a place with the highest amount of wind; The wind enters the citadel from the western part and passing through the corridors, it goes to the ruling part. Engineers used the water supply system and windbreaker to cool the citadel and passed the wind flow through this water supply system to reduce the air temperature of the citadel.

Different parts of the Bam Citadel

Tower and Battlement

 A very large tower and rampart surrounds Bam Castle. 29 watchtowers have been built at indefinite intervals on the hills of this place and 76 watchtowers have been built in the city. Trapezoidal apertures were built in the tower to observe the city, which widened the field of vision and greatly limited the possibility of arrows passing through and injuring the guards.


  One of the unique features of the magnificent Bam citadel is its four fences. The first fence is 18 meters high and it protected the people from the attack of the enemy and its width is more than 6 meters in some places. Watchtowers were also built into the fences so that, in addition to strengthening the fence, it would be a place for officers and guards to rest.


The houses of the citadel are normal, semi-noble and noble. Smaller houses belonged to poor people and had two to three rooms. Houses with three to four rooms and verandas were reserved for the middle class of society. Noble houses were equipped with water wells, stables and private bathrooms. The ruler’s house, at a height of 61 meters, was made of two parts, summer and winter room.


  The initial wall of the city consisted of four large gates. After closing the gates, it was not possible for any animal or human to enter it. The existence of gardens, water wells and domestic animals inside the citadel allowed people to live behind closed gates for a long time.


The capacity of the stable area was about 200 horses. The stable is considered to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the citadel, which is decorated with plasterwork from the Mughal and Timurid periods.

The wonders of the Bam citadel

Windbreaker or Wind tower

  In the architecture of the houses, ventilation was built in, which directed the wind into the house and cooled the space like a natural cooler. The presence of small ponds was in the direction of the wind, in addition to cooling the air, it removes dust, and this is a unique architectural style. The magnificent citadel is Bam.

Children’s cemetery

After the earthquake of 2002, bones were thrown out of the citadel wall, which included 68 bodies of children and babies, whose age dates back to many years ago. According to research, this castle was used to bury the bodies of children from the Safavid era until recent years. There are patterns on children’s shrouds that are not in accordance with Islamic laws, and apparently, in the past, people with different religions lived in Arg Bam. It is said that the age of the bodies is related to the restoration of the citadel fence after the attack of Afghans to the Qajar period.

Visiting this magnificent castle and getting to know the unique architecture of this castle will be very enjoyable and will create a unique travel experience for you. According to the weather of Kerman province, the best time to visit the magnificent Bam citadel is during the cool seasons of the year.

Bam citadel is registered in the world list of UNESCO. By joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel Agency, visit this unique historical monument and experience a pleasant travel experience.

Lut desert

Lut Desert

Lut Desert


Lut desert is located in the southeast of Iran. The title of the most pristine spot in Iran has been given to Lut Desert. “Lut” in Balochi language means naked, thirsty and empty of everything.

  The major part of this great desert is sand.

  The time of formation of most deserts goes back to the third geological period, which were ancient lakes, and now the salt left over from their evaporation in the past prevents the growth of any plant in these areas. For this reason, geologists refer to the vast region of southeastern Iran as Lut Desert.

The vast area of Lut desert includes parts of the three vast provinces of Sistan and Baluchistan, South Khorasan and Kerman and extends from north to south. About 70% of this vast desert is in Kerman province and 30% is in South Khorasan and Sistan and Baluchistan provinces. Is located.

  The average length of Lut desert is estimated to be 900 km from north to south and 300 km from west to east. Due to the vastness of Lut desert, different regions with different climates and geographical features have been created in it.

Different parts of Lut desert

North Lut desert

In Northern Lut, there are many sedimentary and volcanic mountains and hills that have caused numerous earthquakes in this region.

The northernmost area of Lut desert, most of which is within the boundaries of South Khorasan and Birjand provinces, is considered a vast area whose height reaches 1000 meters in the northernmost parts and decreases to 500 meters as it moves towards the south.

Central lut

  Central Lut with 162 km length and 52 km width is known as “Chale Lut”. Central Lut is the most different part of the Lut desert, which is covered with huge masses of sand.There are scattered salt and chalk deserts in the central Lut.

South Lot

The southernmost region of Lut desert includes a major part of Kerman province and northern Sistan and Baluchistan. This region is more fertile than other parts in terms of vegetation and remains of ancient civilizations. It is divided into three parts in terms of geology:



This area is known as Hamada and it is full of big and small stones that are artistically placed together. That’s why Dasht Sar is also called Sangfarsh desert. Wind erosion, severe temperature changes and erosion by running water are the reasons for the existence of such an area that has no vegetation.


 Kalut is a local name that refers to deep ditches and huge sand pyramids that have emerged as a result of soil erosion. Lut Desert Kalut are located in an area of ​​80 km wide and 145 km long and are considered a unique phenomenon in the world. The reason for the existence of these Kalut is the erosion by the Shore River and the 120-day winds of Sistan, which have created the most spectacular attraction of Lut.

Sand dunes

 an area of ​​50 thousand hectares is covered with sand dunes. The height of some of these crescent-shaped hills reaches 500 meters.

Gandom Beriyan

Gandom beriyan on the west of the Lut, there are hills covered with stones and black volcanic lava, which has an area of ​​480 square kilometers. This area is devoid of life in the summer season, the air temperature is more than 71 degrees Celsius, and no living thing survives. The black covering of the area causes the air temperature to rise sharply. Being at a low altitude (400 meters above sea level) has also been declared as one of the reasons for the extreme heat in this area.


According to reports, in 2005, the infrared radiometer of NASA’s “Ecoai” satellite measured the temperature of the central areas of Lut desert at 70.7 degrees Celsius.

Vegetation and fauna of Lut desert

 In the central parts of Lut desert, there is no special plant and animal life; But in some days of the year when the weather conditions are more favorable, temporary life is observed. In the spring season in Dasht Sar region, after limited seasonal rains, grass plants grow and dry in a short time.

There are many species of plants in the Rig yalan area, including Calligonum and Haloxylon. The density of this vegetation is much higher in East Lut. In 20 km of Shahdad area, you can also see Tamarisk bushes. One of the amazing and unique phenomena of Lut desert are the sand pots (Nabkha). With a height of 10 meters, these Nabkhas are the tallest in the world, and they are surrounded by Tamarisk bushes. The tallest Nabkha in the African Sahara is only three meters high.

Animals that are resistant to dehydration live in Lut desert. These animals include all kinds of snakes and carrion-eating birds, Jaculus, foxes and Sand cats, and all kinds of Agamas.

  About 70 species of birds with white color have also been seen in Lut desert. The reason for their white color is less heat absorption. The water needed by the bird is also provided by eating insects or dew that is formed due to the temperature difference between day and night.


Lut desert at night

The temperature difference between night and day in the Lut desert is noticeable due to the lack of vegetation. Plants have a significant impact on the weather. Since no photosynthesis occurs in the desert, the temperature drops a lot. The heat of the day in the desert is not absorbed due to the lack of insulation of the sand to maintain the temperature and store the heat; Therefore, desert nights are very cold. There is a significant difference between Lut and other desert regions of the world, which is the 120-day winds of Sistan during the summer season, which makes the air temperature not increase during the day and not decrease at night. In fact, these winds play the role of regulating the temperature of Lut desert.

Secrets of the Lut Desert

Lut desert is considered the most inaccessible desert in the world. Shahdad’s Kalut are full of secrets. Some people believe that this is the cursed city of the “Lot people” who were turned into stone, and this is the reason why it was named the desert of Lut.

 The Kaluts are full of unknowns and there are still parts where no human has been. However, in the marginal areas of Lut and Shahdad deserts, artifacts such as pottery and stone vessels from ancient civilizations dating back to 3000 BC have been discovered.

 Parts of the central desert are so burning that even bacteria cannot live, but in an area called “Zangi Ahmad”, where there is no trace of water or life, there are traces of a dilapidated wooden tower surrounded by broken pottery and colored glass. has been

 In recent years, a fossil of a dinosaur’s nail has been discovered in Lut desert, which needs a more detailed investigation.

desert lake

One of the wonders of the Lut desert is the presence of running water, especially in the marginal areas of the desert. The dried riverbeds indicate ancient and abundant rivers in the past. These rivers flow a little during seasonal rains.


Shahdad’s Kaluts

Shahdad Kaluts has an area of 11,000 square kilometers and is a mysterious, unknown and frightening area; Because there are few signs of life in this area. The ancient city of Shahdad is considered to be the center of government of “Arata” tribes in ancient Iran. This is the place of discovery of the oldest metal flag in the world, which is called “Shahdad Flag”.

Shahdad’s Kaluts date back to 20,000 years ago.



The night sky of the desert is a paradise for astronomers, photographers and researchers due to the pristine nature of Lut compared to other deserts of Iran.

Lut desert has so many unique and different attractions that it arouses the interest of tourists. In addition to watching the legendary Kaluts, various side entertainments are also provided for tourists such as off-roading, camel riding, walking and photography.



Lut desert have been registered in the world list of UNESCO and by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular desert.

Iranian Qanats

The glory of Iran’s Qanats

The Glory of Iran’s Qanats

History of Qanats in Iran

Iranian Qanats are considered as the most important factor in the development of civilization. The Iranians, with their innovations and the construction of Qanats, were able to use water safely and permanently throughout the year. They are themselves. Most areas of Iran are hot and dry. Life in these areas is impossible due to rain and insufficient water. But Iranians have been able to meet their water needs by digging Qanats.

Other hot and dry regions of the world, such as Australia, are uninhabited, but in Iran, due to the digging of Qanats and its unique water supply system, many cities and villages have been formed. Agriculture is also thriving in these hot and dry areas, and products such as fruits, vegetables and oilseeds are produced.

Researchers believe that the first Qanat was built in Iran. Then in the Achaemenid period, the secret of this water supply system by the Iranians went to Oman, Yemen and the Horn of Africa. The Muslims then took the secret to Spain.

In 2014, an old Qanat dating back to the third millennium BC was discovered near the Samira Dam (western Iran). This discovery showed that the Qanat system was widespread throughout Iran and was not used only in the desert. In 2003, after the Bam earthquake, an Qanat was discovered that is more than 2000 years old. This Qanat was excavated at the end of the Achaemenid period. It is said that the construction of Qanats has become popular in Iran since the Achaemenid period. Silas, the military commander of Darius I in the conquest of Egypt, built an Qanat in Egypt in 518 BC. Other Egyptian and Syrian Qanats were built during the Roman period.

The Greek Polybius describes an Qanat in the Persian desert in the second century BC. He says the Iranians mysteriously brought water from the depths of the earth to the surface. Vitruvius (80 BC) describes the Qanat in his book and reveals some technical secrets of this engineering phenomenon (Qanat).

In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a French-British tourist named Jean Chardin wrote: The Iranians were not only able to locate the exact location of the water, but also had the ability to transport water up to a distance of 60 km or sometimes more.

What is an Qanat?

Several thousand years ago, the ancient Iranians invented a new system called the Qanat. The Qanat is an underground passageway that carries water from the groundwater aquifer to lower lands. The Qanat consists of several wells. These wells, which are drilled vertically on a sloping surface, are connected to each other underground with a gentler slope. The first well is called the mother well. The mother well, which is usually submerged in an alluvial cone, is deeper than the groundwater level. The Qanat system is similar to an ant nest. Because it starts from the foot of the mountain and continues to the desert where the water is collected.

Qanat structure:


A corridor or tunnel is an Qanat that is dug to access groundwater aquifers and transfer water to the ground. The dimensions of this corridor are almost horizontal in such a way as to allow workers to work and move easily. The height of the corridor is about 90 to 150 cm and its width is almost less than half of its height.

Qanat exit

the place where the Qanat corridor and the surface of the earth are integrated, is called Qanat output. This place is also called Mazhar (the place where the water appears).

Well shaft

Vertical wells that are dug to the Qanat corridor to connect the ground floor and the horizontal corridor of the Qanat is called. shafts have many uses. Their main use is to drain the soil resulting from digging the Qanat corridor. They also help ventilate and supply oxygen to workers. These wells help to send the required facilities and tools and discharge waste more easily. Hence the time and cost required for repairs and construction. These well shafts are drilled with a diameter between 80 to 100 cm.

Mother well

The farthest and deepest well shaft from the Qanat outlet that is dug in the upstream points is called mother well. The high flow of water in the mother well indicates the good flow of the Qanat. If the water level decreases and reaches below the mother well, water will no longer flow in the corridor of the Qanat and the Qanat will dry up. The depth of the mother well is different in different Qanats. The deepest mother well in Iran is excavated in Qasbeh Gonabad Qanat with about 300 meters.

Qanat-related structures


One of the structures related to the Qanat is Payab. Payab is a place of access to Qanat water. Payab is located in the courtyards of houses and mosques. The important thing about enduring is its very cool weather in summer. The bottoms have been used as refrigerators for food storage and in some cases for naps.

Windbreaker (Bad gir)

In houses, windbreaks are built on the Qanat. The use of wind deflectors is to circulate the air. The air that passes through the water of the Qanat cools the room. The combination of these two buildings (windbreak and running water of the Qanat) can be seen in most of the houses in the desert cities of Iran.

Investigation of Iranian Qanats

The deepest Qanat in Iran and the world

Qasbeh Qanat (Gonabad)

Qasbeh Qanat is an amazing phenomenon in Gonabad city. The Qasbeh Qanat dates back to 2500 to 2700 years ago. The length of this Qanat is 33. Its mother well is 350 meters deep, which is known as the deepest Qanat in the world. The Qanat water flow rate is about 150 liters per second and is almost constant throughout the year.

The longest Qanat in Iran

Zarch Qanat (Yazd)

The longest Qanat in Iran, “Zarch”, is in Yazd city. This Qanat is 100 km long. The number of wells is 2115. Its wells have been drilled at a depth of 23 meters. The Qanat is estimated to be up to three thousand years old in the Zoroastrian period. This Qanat is located next to the Yazd Grand Mosque.

Unfortunately, this Qanat has dried up due to the excessive digging of deep wells in the Qanat area, and only one of its branches is active.

The most special Qanat in the world

Our Qanat (Ardestan)

“Moon” Qanat is located in Ardestan city, Isfahan province. This Qanat is the only two-story Qanat in the world. The surprise of this Qanat is that the water of one of its floors does not penetrate the other. This 2,500-year-old Qanat has a water storage dam. Therefore, it is able to store agricultural water for four months. Experts consider the Qanat to be one of the masterpieces of engineering in ancient times in terms of observing the principles of drilling.

Qanat dating back to prehistoric Iran

Varzan Qanat

Varzan Qanat is about 3,000 years old. This Qanat is located in the city of Varzan, Isfahan. According to Japanese experts, this Qanat is one of the rarest Qanats in the world. This Qanat has a dam. The dam has a capacity of about 3,200 cubic meters of water for 120 days.

The first Qanat without a well

Ghias Abad Qanat

Ghias Abad Qanat is 350 to 400 meters long. The Qanat dates back to 1000 years ago. The use of this Qanat was to transfer water from one side of the mountain to the other, which is an agricultural field. Due to the special conditions of the Qanat, no wells have been dug in it.

The only conical Qanat in the world

Ibrahim Abad Qanat

Ibrahim Abad Arak Qanat is one of the masterpieces of Iranian art. This Qanat dates back to the sixth and seventh centuries AH. To dig an Qanat, a circle with a radius of one meter is dug and this circle becomes deeper. But the wonder of this Qanat is that it is conical in shape; The more the well goes down ،the wider and larger the well becomes.

The number of aqueducts in Iran is about 36,300. After many efforts, in 2016, 11 Iranian aqueducts were finally registered with UNESCO. Unique features, including the deepest, longest and strangest, are the reasons for registering these aqueducts. Visiting this attractive architecture and engineering will be fascinating for any viewer.

 By joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular Qanats.

Sassanid Archaeological Landscape

Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region

Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region

The Sasanian archaeological landscape of Fars includes the most valuable historical, architectural and urban planning related to the Sasanian era (224 to 658 AD), which are located in the historical areas of Firouzabad, Bishapur and Sarvestan.

The Sasanian archaeological landscape of Fars region with 8 significant architectural works, two historical cities, 8 reliefs, a castle and two palaces has been registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

According to archeological studies, Fars province plays an important role in the 400-year rule of the Sassanids and contains the most Monuments from the Sassanid period (about 3000 Monuments).

The most important Sasanian Monument in Fars province, which connects Sasanian and Islamic architecture, is the world’s first dome in Firozabad.

The Sasanian archaeological landscape of Fars region is a representation of the history of Iran during the Sasanian era.

 This collection of Monuments represents Iranian urban planning, art, architecture and lithography, which has its roots in the pre-Sasanian period, especially the Parthian period. But you can see the influence of Roman and even Greek art, especially in the ancient city of Bishapur. The method of building porches, the first domes on square buildings, using clay with sarooj is one of the architectural features of this historical period.

The art of Stone carving was used in Iran from the Elamite period and before that to show the power and glory of the kingdom, but this art reached its peak in the Sassanid period. The Sassanians used the art of stone carving to narrate important historical events.

 Many researchers believe that the first model of Iranian dome building was implemented in the Fire Temple of Gore and evolved during the Sassanid era. Dome construction reached its peak in the Islamic period.

Many of Monuments of this area are related to the period of Shahpur, one of the greatest kings in the history of Iran. One of the important historical events of Iran is the series of battles between Iran and Rome during the Shahpur period, the feedback of which can be found in Tang Chogan and the city of Bishapur. After a battle with the Romans, Shahpur captured the Roman legionaries and their emperor and used them to build the city of Bishapur.

Sasanians had deep religious beliefs. Their deep ties with Zoroastrians made the beliefs of this religion reach the peak of its power in the history of Iran during this period.

Ardashir Investiture Relief

The petroglyph of Ardeshir and Ahuramazda is one of the most beautiful and healthy motifs surviving from the Sasanian period. In this petroglyph, Ahuramazda and Ardeshir Babkan are standing in front of each other. Ahuramazda gives the king’s ring to Ardeshir from the altar of fire and elects him to be king. Behind Ardeshir’s head, the crown prince (Shapur) and two other princes are standing.

Ardeshir Babakan’s victory petroglyph

A petroglyph related to the Sasanian period, in which the scene of the victorious battle of Ardeshir Babakan with the last Parthian king is engraved. This petroglyph is 18 meters long and 4 meters high and is considered the largest surviving petroglyph in Iran. This Monument was carved on top of a rock in Firozabad and around the Firozabad River.

Shahpour Cave

Shapur Cave the other sassanid archaeological landscape is located 6 km from the historical city of Bishabur in “Sine Kouh” at an altitude of about 800 meters. The statue of Shapur with a height of 6 meters and a weight of 30 tons is located at its entrance. This masterpiece of ancient Iranian sculpture still remains after nearly 1700 years, but its two hands are broken. This statue was overturned due to an earthquake, which was repaired and returned to its original state by the Iranian army without considering the principles of archeology.

Aradashir khurreh (gur)

The abandoned city of gur is located three kilometers from Firozabad. gur (Aradashir khurreh) was built in the beginning of the 3rd century AD by the order of Ardeshir Babkan. This circular city is designed with a diameter of 2 kilometers. The city has four main gates and government buildings and residences of courtiers were located in it.The city of gur is considered the first circular city in Iran and the world.

Ardeshir Papakan Palace

Ardeshir Papakan Palace was built in the third century AD by Ardeshir Babakan, one of the founders of the Sassanid dynasty and sassanid archaeological landscape. Ardeshir Papakan Palace dates back to more than 1800 years ago.

Some experts believe that Ardeshir Papakan Palace was not used as a palace in the distant past and was originally a fire temple. Due to the location of the palace by the water, experts believe that the palace was originally a place to worship Anahita, the goddess of water.

  The base of the palace is 104 meters by 55 meters and tiles, plaster and half-hewn stones were used for its construction. The use of these materials has made the architecture inside the palace more beautiful. The building is so strong that it is still standing after 1800 years, and despite the damage caused during the era, it still has the dome of its porches.

 The construction of buildings with domes was not common in the Sassanid era, therefore Ardeshir Papakan Palace is the first building of the Sassanid sassanid archaeological landscape that used domes in its architecture and has 4 domes.

Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region have been registered in the world list of UNESCO and by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular Places. sassanid archaeological landscape

Trans-Iranian railway

Trans-Iranian Railway

Trans-Iranian Railway


Railway history


Trans-Iranian railway: The railway as a means of public transportation is an invention of George Stevenson, which was first started in 1825 AD between two English cities, Stockton-Darlington.

Since the time of Amir Kabir’s ministry, due to the fame of the railway reaching Iran, the government was trying to acquire this technology and start the Iranian railway, but it faced major problems.

The first problem was the opposition of the Russian government in order to prevent the possibility of British access to the borders of Russia through the Iranian railway.

 The British government was also against the construction of a railway in Iran. If the railway was built in Iran, the Russians could bring their forces to the Persian Gulf and then to the border of India.

The most important and last problem was lack of money. The construction of the railway required a huge budget and the Iranian government did not have this possibility.


The Trans-Iranian Railway is the name of the railway that was built during the reign of Reza Shah. The Trans-Iranian Railway connects the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf through the Port of Turkmen (Bandar Shah) and the Port of Imam Khomeini (Bandar Shapur).

During the time of Mohammad Reza Shah and during the expansion of the railway, Tehran was also connected to Semnan, Mashhad, Qazvin, Zanjan, Tabriz, Isfahan, Yazd and Kerman.

The construction of the Trans-Iranian Railway was approved in 1305. On the 4th of March 1305, the bill for the establishment of Iran’s trans-national railway was approved by the representatives of the National Council.

  One year after the approval, the construction of this 1,394-kilometer route began.

The history of the first construction and successful operation of the railway in Iran dates back to the Qajar period (1848 AD) on the way from Rasht to Pirbazar Port and Anzali Port. On the way from Rasht to Pirbazar, there is a steam locomotive in Gilan Port Authority, which is left over from that time.

The mapping contract for the construction of Trans-Iranian railway lines was signed with a consortium consisting of an American company and German companies in 1306 at a maximum price of 368 tomans per kilometer.


Financing the construction of the project was one of the concerns of Iranians. This problem was solved by imposing a tax on items such as tea, sugar and salt at the suggestion of Sani al-Doulah, the speaker of the parliament at the time.


The construction of the Trans-Iranian railway was completed in 1317. Two north and south railway lines are connected to each other at the Sefid Cheshme railway station in Arak, and on this day this railway was put into operation in this province.

The length of this railway is 1394 km and it has about 230 tunnels and 4100 bridges. The highest point of this railway is in the west of Arak with a height of 2200 meters above the sea level.

Completion of the railway

The role of Nazi Germany in helping to build the railway was great. Especially when Hitler needed Iran’s railway lines to attack Iran’s northern neighbor, the Soviet Union.

 Versk Bridge, one of the masterpieces of Austrian engineers, which is still standing, was built on the north-south railway route at that time.

 When the construction of the railway was finished, by the order of Reza Shah, two railway stations were named after Hitler, thanks to the services and help of Germany. One of these stations in the south was named “Rahbar” and the other one in the north was named “Pishwa”, both of which were Hitler’s nicknames. It was also ordered that the famous symbol of Nazi Germany, the swastika, be engraved on the ceiling of the Tehran railway station, which still remains.


Registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List

According to the UNESCO report, the 1394 km north-south railway, the construction of which began in 1927 AD and was completed in 1938 AD, has been a successful collaboration between the Iranian government and 43 contractors and companies from various countries.

According to UNESCO, the engineering of this project is very significant with many difficulties, especially in mountainous areas. There are 174 big bridges, 186 small bridges and 224 tunnels on the Trans-Iran railway route. Instead of borrowing or handing over control of the project to foreigners, the Iranian government completed this project through tax revenues.

 This railway, which connects the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf, passes through two large mountainous regions and passes over bridges, rivers, hills, forests and plains.

 Iran’s railway route is important not only in terms of technique and quality of construction and having special natural sights and attractions in the world, and for this reason, UNESCO at the China Summit voted for the internationalization of this route full of natural attractions, buildings and bridges and stations and historical locomotives.

Trans-Iranian Railway is registered in the world list of UNESCO. By joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel Agency, visit this unique Railway and experience a pleasant travel experience.

tchogha zanbil

Tchogha Zanbil

Magnificent ancient monument of Tchogha Zanbil

Tchogha Zanbil is a remnant city of the Elamite period with an area of 100 hectares. This city is located 35 km southeast of the ancient city of Susa in Khuzestan province. Tchogha Zanbil was built near the Dez River in the early 13th century BC by order of one of the most powerful Elamite kings (Ontash Napirisha). In 640 BC, it was destroyed by Assyrian king Bani Paul at the battle of Humban Haltash.

According to the inscriptions and brick inscriptions obtained from this area, the original name of this place in Elamite language is “Al Untash”.

The city and its temples were built to worship the two great gods, Napirsha and Inshushink (patrons of the city of Susa). Archaeological research has shown that it was used as a place of pilgrimage until 1000 BC.

But due to the mud bricks that were stacked for construction and the incomplete temples, this complex was never completed.

Tchogha Zanbil Architecture

The main materials used in Tchogha Zanbil are clay and mud. Therefore, brick has been used extensively to protect the erosion of bricks.

The ziggurat facade uses thousands of bricks, glazed bricks, bitumen mortar and glass ornaments.

  Other decorations include the entrance gates of the building, which are glazed with sculptures in the shape of bulls made of pottery.

The Tchogha Zanbil Ziggurat was built on five floors, but now only two floors remain.

Some of the bricks used in Tchogha Zanbil are glazed and are considered to be the oldest tiles in the world.

The first examples of Iranian glassmaking from the second millennium BC have been obtained in Tchogha Zanbil. The glass wires found are mass-produced and of the same dimensions.

The city is made up of three fences and seven gates. There are many palaces, temples and structures between each fence.

The first fence buildings

This fence includes ziggurats and temples. There are 6 gates in this fence, which is the way for pilgrims to enter the temple grounds. The first fence is made of clay and is called Temnos.


In ancient times, people believed that the gods lived in paradise and that they had to go to high places to worship the gods. So, they built ziggurats to get closer to the gods.

The ziggurats were in fact multi-story temples built with the goal of bringing humans closer to the gods. This religious building was built during the Babylonian and Assyrian periods in Mesopotamia. During the Elamite period, these buildings were also built in Iran.

The Tchogha Zanbil ziggurat was dedicated to two of the great Elamite gods, Inshushinak and Napirisha.

Temple of the Goddess Inshushinak

This temple is a gift to the goddess Inshushinak. The temple has 5 rooms.

  The entrance arch of the temple gate is known as the “luxurious (Mojallal)gate”. The luxurious (Mojallal) gate is made of wood and decorated with glass. The safest and best latches and hinges are found in the Inshushinak Temple.

Triple Shrines

Three shrines have been identified in which interesting objects have been discovered. Objects that the Assyrian soldiers did not want to loot. Items such as sculptures of boars, cows, turtles and birds made of glass paste.

The Great Gate

The Great Gate is the largest and widest gate of the fences around the Ziggurat. This gate was for the movement of the king and the courtiers.

Northeast Gate

This gate is the largest and most important gate and has four towers. Two towers are located outside and the other two towers are located inside the fence.

Buildings inside the second fence

The fence that surrounds the first fence and part of Tchogha Zanbil.

Hyschemic and rheumatic temples

21 inscribed bricks have been found in this temple. The names of these two ancient Elamite gods are engraved on the inscriptions.

Susa Gate

This passage is very narrow and few people passed through this place. The floor of this gate is paved with broken clay. The ground outside the gate is also paved with pebbles.

Third fence

The third fence of Tchogha Zanbil represented the city limits. The last fence includes the first and second fences and the complex of Tchogha Zanbil buildings. On the brick walls, gutters are made to direct water out of the fence to prevent water from penetrating under the wall and around the gutters.

Other buildings in Tchogha Zanbil

Palace of Tombs

Near the third fence, there is a complex called the royal court. In this complex, there are 5 underground tombs (Elamite kings and princes), which is known as the Palace of Tombs.

Nosco Shrine

This (T) shaped building is located in the King’s residence. This place was the private shrine of the king and the royal family.

Tchogha Zanbil refinery

The refinery is another special feature of this complex. This refinery is one of the oldest refineries in the world and is unique in its kind for that period.

The main source of water for this treatment plant was Karkheh River and it reached Tchogha Zanbil through a 45 km canal. It is only 3 km away from Dez river, but the temple water is supplied from Karkheh River. The main reason for the lack of water supply from the Dez River is the high distance of Tchogha Zanbil from the surface of the Dez River.

Tchogha Zanbil Ziggurat Observatory

This was a solar observatory or solar calendar to calculate the solar rotation and the calendar. This Tchogha Zanbil observatory has been used to extract the calendar and identify the early and middle days of each season.

The building blocks of the Tchogha Zanbil solar meters are octagonal in shape for the observatory.

Solar meters are designed so that the time of sunrise or sunset can be detected by looking at the shadows created from it. The beginning or middle of each season can also be identified by these clocks.



Tchogha Zanbil is one of the most impressive ruins of antiquity, not only in the Middle East but also in the world. This area attracts many tourists every year.

  In 1979, Chogha Zanbil became the first Iranian site to be inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.By joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel Agency, visit this unique historical monument and experience a pleasant travel experience.




shiraz | Persian garden

The Persian Garden

The Persian Garden

Persian garden: Iranian garden has always played an important role throughout history

 in Iranian life and architecture, and it is one of the oldest and most important garden styles in the world. The important role of Persian gardens can be seen in the paintings of Kamaluddin Behzad, in the poems of Khayyam and Hafez, Saadi, in Persian fiction and Found in Iranian carpets.

Persian gardens were built in two categories (garden-palace) and (garden-tomb). Garden-palaces were built for kings and rulers, and the palace was generally placed in the center of the garden. Garden-tomb grounds were also built with the inspiration of heaven for the graves of important people.

The word garden (pardis) in Persian is the root of the word paradise (heaven) in English. Since the time of the Sassanids and then in the Islamic period, poetry and literature have always been full of respect and love for nature, and the aesthetic aspect of the garden was more important than before, and an attempt was made to make them an allegory of heaven. In this regard, in the design of Iranian gardens, descriptions of heaven were used to bring a place of comfort.

In the structure of Persian Garden, the slope of the land and access to water were the determining factors.

Slope gardens were built in such a way that the water flows in the direction of the slope.

Water has a historical place in Iran and has been a messenger of light and purity. This position is due to the lack of water in a country where a large percentage of it is desert. Water played a key role in the creation of Persian Garden, and the reason for the construction of historical Persian garden was the presence of natural springs or aqueducts in the region. The size of the Persian garden that was built also depended on the amount of water that was available for irrigation.

 Iranians mostly built gardens on sloping land and by placing stairs in the water path, they increased the sound of the water flow and used its pleasant sound.

 The use of fountains had a great effect on the appearance and beauty of Persian Garden. The water features, which were made with different designs and made of stone with white chips, gave a special effect to the gardens.

The pattern of four gardens is the next principle of making Persian Garden. In this pattern, four streams reach the center of the garden and divide the garden into four parts. The concept of the four gardens pattern is attributed to the following four concepts: four heavenly streams, four geographical directions, four seasons, four Classical elements.

Persian Garden have been registered in the world list of UNESCO. Visit the most spectacular gardens of Iran by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel Agency.

Pasargad garden

Pasargad garden and its complex of palaces are considered as the most enduring innovations of the Achaemenid period and the first example of Persian garden construction. This style of gardening has been used as a model in Iran and neighboring countries.

Cyrus the Great had personally ordered how to create the garden of Pasargad and how to plant the trees.

  The whole garden has an area of about 8 hectares, and 900 meters of limestone canal was built to bring water all over it. The way of distribution and division of water in the complex of gardens and palaces and the combination of architecture with nature are among the features that raise this garden as a mother model in Iranian gardening.

Shahzadeh Mahan Historical Garden

Shazdeh Mahan garden is one of the full-fledged Persian garden, which has been turned into a green garden in the heart of the desert with its unique engineering. This garden, which is on the UNESCO list, is one of the most visited tourist places in Iran.

 Prince’s Garden was located on the Silk Road and was a suitable place to build a beautiful aristocratic garden, which shows Iran’s water engineering in that period in a good way.

 The location of the garden on a sloping ground has led to the construction of streams full of steps in it, which are always flowing and double the beautiful appearance of the garden.

 The garden mansion is located at the end of it, and by standing on its upper porch, in addition to the views of the garden, you can also enjoy the views outside the garden.

Shiraz Eram Garden

Shiraz is a city full of beautiful gardens. But Eram Garden is famous for its fragrant orange trees and evergreen cedars.

Eram Garden with a mansion located in its heart, which is unique and inspiring in terms of architecture and interior design. The construction of the garden dates back to the Seljuk period and has been renovated many times since then.

Eram garden is placed in the category of garden-palaces. The garden is rectangular in shape and surrounded by mud walls. The mansion is placed at a height above the garden level so that they have a general view of the garden. The large pool in front of the building adds a lot of grandeur to the building. A water stream flows along the pool, which is divided into other streams.

Dowlat Abad Garden, Yazd

Dowlat Abad Garden is one of the oldest gardens in Yazd. To supply water and build a garden, a 65-kilometer-long aqueduct was dug through which water was brought from Mehriz to Dowlat Abad Garden. This garden is very full of water and many people used to come to the garden to watch its fountains and streams. The many watery pools crystallize the feeling of vitality in the visitors.

The architecture of Dowlat Abad mansion and its 33-meter Windcatcher, which is the tallest wind turbine in the world, brings a cool atmosphere in the heat of summer with the combination of wind and water. The garden is very symmetrical and is divided into two parts, the outer garden and the inner garden. The axis of symmetry of the garden is the blue sky, which is about 200 meters long. The arrangement of trees along the main axis has led visitors’ eyes and focused the garden on the main mansion.

Fin Garden, Kashan

Fin Garden is one of the manifestations of Iranian architecture and design art. The design of the garden and the use of water streams, pools, and trees have given this garden a lively appearance.

According to historical documents, the old garden was during Al-Boyeh era, whose initial design was done by Ghiyasuddin Jamshid Kashani. The garden was completely destroyed due to the earthquake and the Mughal attack. However, during the Safavid era, the current building was revived with the design of Sheikh Baha’i.

  Fin garden has many buildings in its collection such as bath, palace and etc.

Bagh Fin was considered one of the most famous historical buildings and very important events happened in this building, including the murder of Amir Kabir.

Abbas Abad Historical Garden, Behshahr

Abbas Abad Historical Persian garden in Behshahr is the most important non-desert garden in Iran, which, in addition to its historical attraction, also has a unique natural attraction. This garden is one of the largest Persian garden and its architecture is valuable. This complex is one of the non-desert gardens of Iran, which was built in the 11th century by the order of Shah Abbas Safavi.

 The complex includes a garden, a lake and a bathhouse, and a four-arched brick building is located in the center of the lake. The water of the lake is supplied by winter rains.

The Persian garden of this complex is built on a natural hill, which was created by cutting the hill, creating a matching and stepped garden. This unique garden is built like other Persian garden and is one of the most unique gardens in Iran.

Chehel Sotoun, Isfahan

Chehel Sotoun is one of the examples of Persia garden left over from the Safavid period. This garden is a small part of the vast panoramic garden that Shah Abbas I created by building a palace in the center of the garden of the first Chehel Sotoun Palace. Despite the damage, this garden still has stunning beauty for visitors.

  The vegetation of the garden includes Persian pine, elm, black maple and sycamore trees. The area of the palace is 2120 square meters and the building of the mansion is one meter higher than the level of the garden.

Pahlavanpur Garden,Yazd

Pahlavanpur Garden is one of the most abundant and greenest gardens in Mehr Riz-Yazd. This garden dates back to the Qajar period. Three important aqueducts of the city pass through this garden. Despite the dry and hot climate of Yazd province, pomegranates, persimmons and almonds grow in this garden, and this is due to the abundance of water in this garden.

The garden complex includes the main palace, stables, Ab anbar, central courtyard, bathroom, kitchen, etc.

Akbariyeh Garden, Birjand

Akbariye Garden with an area of ​​about 4 hectares is one of the tourist attractions of South Khorasan province.

Experts attribute the beginning of the construction of the garden to the end of the Zandiya period or the beginning of the Qajar period, but the construction of this garden was completed in the Qajar period.

The garden was created on a sloping ground and the mansion was built in the highest part of the garden. The main two-story mansion is located in the central part and has a special symmetry and proportion.

  Many shady trees have been planted and most of the garden is devoted to planting fruit trees and medicinal plants.

 There is a main permanent water stream and several secondary streams in the garden, the sound of which is very pleasant. A large pool, one of the important elements of Iranian gardens, occupies a major part of the garden space. This pool has a square platform in the middle that stands out in the garden.

Persian Gardens  are registered in the world list of UNESCO. By joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel Agency, visit these unique historical monuments and experience a pleasant travel experience.

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System | Iran travel Time

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System: Achaemenians have built amazing buildings in the history of their rule. Buildings that, in addition to their beauty and splendor, are famous for their precise engineering structure. One of the most beautiful and precise engineering architectures, whose construction lasted until the Sassanid era, is Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System.


Shushtar historical hydraulic systems have a very rich history and their construction dates back to the Achaemenid era. Considering the engineering science and tools of that time, this monument is a very strange phenomenon that has been registered in UNESCO.

 The city of Shushtar has a history of thousands of years and dates back to the Paleolithic era.One of the reasons for Shushtar’s constant prosperity throughout history is its proximity to the Karun River. The proximity of Shushtar to the temple of Chaghazanbil made this city very important among the Elamites. Therefore, the first Iranian civilizations were formed in Shushtar.

 The Achaemenid era was the peak of Iranian civilization, art and science. They built this industrial and water structure with very precise engineering. Shushtar historical hydraulic system was rebuilt many times during the Sassanid, Seljuk, Qajar and even Pahlavi eras. But unfortunately, a strong flood caused severe damage to this structure.

The purpose of the Achaemenians in building this hydraulic system was to make more use of running water. Over time, various parts were added to this clay hydraulic system and formed the largest water museum of ancient Iran.

Among the attractions of Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system, bridges, dams, mills, water guiding channels are all built with the most accurate mathematical and environmental calculations in running water to supply urban water and water needed by agricultural lands in the best way.


Shushtar historical hydraulic system architecture is one of the wonders of history. The architecture and resistance of this building over the years is one of its unique features. Building such a great structure with simple tools required a very high level of knowledge at that time. In order to fully waterproof the structure, the architects created holes in the stone and mortar so that this structure would remain healthy for thousands of years.

One of the most important architectural goals of Shushtar’s historical hydraulic system was the diversion of Karun water to another direction. This work was done with complete precision and elegance, and the bottom of this stream was well waterproofing so that the stream bed would not be destroyed over time.

After that, the water was collected behind a high dam and passed through the holes created on the rock. Then the water was passed through the water mills and finally entered the streams and tunnels. At the end, the water flowed from the rocks into a small pond in the form of a beautiful waterfall to provide the agricultural and drinking needs of the villagers.

 Iranians attached great importance to the water distribution system and, of course, saving its consumption, and Shushtar’s  historical hydraulic system is a sign of this.


Shushtar historical hydraulic system has different parts. Each of these parts has played an important role in the overall performance of the structure.

1- Gargar Bridge-Dam

This bridge was built on the path of the Gargar River to block the water and create a level difference, to direct the water into the three channels. These canals direct part of the water to the mills, and in addition to starting the mill cycle, part of the water flows into the water ponds through waterfalls.

2- Mizan Dam

The beginning of the process of dividing water in Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system takes place from this Dam. This Dam is made of stone and Sarooj in a semi-circle shape and is located on the Karun River. The Mizan dam is responsible for dividing water between the Gargar and Shatit rivers. The dam is about 400 meters long and 5 meters high. The purpose of building this dam was to raise the water level for easier use of water resources in agriculture.

3-Kolah Ferangi tower

At the end of Mizan Band and on top of the hill, there is an octagonal brick tower with a height of 7 meters, which has a complete view of the band. According to the historical documents of this tower, it was the observation point of Caesar Rome or Shapur Sassani to monitor the workers in Mizan Band. Today, a large part of this damaged tower has been registered in the list of national monuments of Iran.

4- The hand-made river of Gregar

When the Mizan Dam divides the water of the Karun River, a part of this water flows into a river whose bed and path were designed and created by the architects of Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system. This 40 km route became known as the Gregar River. Today, there are many green palm trees around this river, which are called Bagh Khan.

5-Water mills

There are many water mills in Shushtar historical hydraulic system. These water mills have shown the government’s focus on the maximum use of natural energy. In this system, the power of water caused movement in the mill cycles. The rotation of the mill was a great help in preparing flour for the farmers. According to historical studies, there were 40 water mills in this area in the past, today only half of these mills remain.

6- 4000 year old staircase

These handmade stairs connected Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system to the residential area. Historians have estimated the age of the stairs to be a thousand years ago. There are stone inscriptions on the path of the stairs, which show that this beautiful clay path has a much longer history.

7-Dara Dam

  Different dynasties used Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system and a new part has been added to it in each period. Dara Dam, which is located on the Gargar River, is considered one of the most important dams in this region. This Dam dates back to the Achaemenid period and has a very high historical value.

8- Darion channel

The name of the Darion River is derived from the name of Darius the Great. The function of this channel is to transfer water from the north to the south of the city. The Mianab plain was irrigated through this channel.


The historical hydraulic system complex of Shushtar is full of tourist attractions. Visiting this historical complex will be a unique experience for every tourist.

This monument is known as one of the technical and engineering masterpieces of the world, which has been registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System have been registered in the world list of UNESCO and by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular system.


Bistun | Bisotun in Kermanshah | Bisotun UNESCO World heritage of Iran

Bisotun (Bistun) in Kermanshah

Bistun or Bisotun in Kermanshah

Bistun or Bisotun In Kermanshah: In each region of Iran, you can see signs of the greatness of Iranians in different historical periods. One of the best examples is the Bisotun World Heritage Site in Kermanshah. Bisotun (Bistun) area has a long history and has valuable historical monuments. The ancient and sacred site of bistun or Bisotun in Kermanshah, with an area of about 200 hectares, contains artifacts from the Paleolithic period to the present day.

The reason for naming Bistun or Bisotun in Kermanshah

Bistun comes from the word “Baghistan” which means the place of the gods. Bistun changed over time to “Bahistan” and later “Bahistun”; It is also known as Bisotun today; However, it is wrong to read it as     “BiSotun”, meaning without columns.

Bisotun (Bistun) Inscription

The most impressive work on the Bisotun (Bistun) World Heritage Site is the Bisotun Inscription. This inscription is attributed to Darius I and shows his relief after the victory of the war.

Next to this work, there is another inscription of the words of Darius I, which is said to be the oldest existing text of the Iranian government. This trilingual inscription deals with the first year of the reign of Darius the Great.

The relief of Darius and the captives is carved in the mountain, 3 meters high and 5.5 meters wide. The image of Darius the Great is dimensioned in 181 cm with precise details. Behind him are two of his commanders, and in front of him are nine rebel prisoners whose names and places of revolt are engraved on their heads.

Gaumata or the false Berdia (leader of the rebels) is also under Darius.

In this lithograph, Darius’s right hand is raised towards Ahura Mazda (Forouhar sign) as a sign of worship.

Statue of Hercules

The statue of Hercules is one of the attractions of the historic complex of Bisotun (Bistun) in Kermanshah. This statue dates back to the Seleucid-Parthian period. The time of construction of the statue is estimated to be 153 BC, which coincides with the reign of Mehrdad I Parthian and the end of the Seleucid rule.

Hercules was one of the most beloved gods, and therefore many clay and stone figures were made of him.

A Greek inscription is carved on the back of the statue, and carvings such as an olive tree are carved.

Bisotun (Bistun) Palace

Bisotun Palace is an unfinished palace from the Sassanid period. This palace connects Bisotun (Bistun) Mountain and Bisotun (Bistun) Lake in Kermanshah.

During the investigation, the palace was left unfinished for unknown reasons and later turned into Caravanserai, which was destroyed by an earthquake.

In Iranian culture and literature, this palace was the residence of the (Shirin) lover of Khosrow Parviz, the Sassanid king, before the Arab invasion of Iran.

This palace is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Iran.

Ilkhani Caravanserai

The Ilkhani caravanserai was built on the remains of partial palace.

The materials used to build this caravanserai are brick, stone and plaster.

In addition to the central courtyard, the caravanserai had 64 rooms and a small mosque. This place was destroyed by a terrible earthquake, but the remains of its arches are still there.

Farhad Tarash

At the foot of Bisotun (Bistun) Mountain, huge walls with a width of about 200 meters and a height of 36 meters have been carved, which is known among the people as “Farhad Tarash”.

There are different theories in the content of this work.

Some believe that Farhad Tarash is one of the works of Darius I of the Achaemenid dynasty and Darius intended to crave his will here.

Others believe that this place was a stone mine.

In Persian literature, based on Nezami poems, a man named Farhad falls in love with a woman named Shirin. According to that legend, Khosro Parviz instructs Farhad to cut around Bisotun (Bistun) Mountain to reach the water, and if he succeeds, he can marry Shirin. After a while and removing half of the mountain, water is found and, in the meantime, Khosrow informs Farhad that Shirin has died. Farhad dies of this grief.

Median Fortress

The Median Fortress is another monument of the historical site of Bistun or Bisotun in Kermanshah. This fortress is located under the inscription of Darius the Great. The fortress is a platform 10.5 meters long, 7 meters wide and 1.5 meters high, which is made of uncut stones and is divided into two parts through a corridor seven meters long and 1.5 meters wide. During excavations around the fortress, pottery belonging to the first millennium BC was discovered.

Bisotun Mountain Caves

Hunters Cave: This cave, also known as Bistun Cave, is located on top of the statue of Hercules. This cave was probably a shelter for hunters to hide from wild animals

 Mar kher Cave: Because the entrance to the cave is round, the locals call it Mar kher Cave. The oldest artifacts discovered in this cave, including thick stone blades, date back to the Middle Paleolithic period; Of course, artifacts from other historical periods up to the Sassanid era have been found in this cave.

Masonry sculpture of Mehrdad Ashkani

This stone carving of the greatest Parthian kings can be considered as one of the oldest surviving works from the Parthian rule.

Mehrdad’s stone carving in Bistun or Bisotun in Kermanshah is a representation of his handover of power to the satraps (local rulers), each of whom stood in a row behind each other. There is an inscription in Greek script on the head of each person to introduce them.

This stone carving not only suffered natural damage over time, but also Prime Minister Shah Suleiman the Safavid destroyed parts of it in order to sculpt his deed of endowment.

Safavid Caravansary

Shah Abbasi Caravanserai has an area of more than 6,000 square meters, was built by order of Shah Abbas I Safavid. The caravanserai was renovated during the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah and was used as a grain warehouse in the Pahlavi period.

Shah Abbasi Caravanserai has been converted into a traditional hotel.

Seeing this historical complex with its many historical attractions will be an exciting travel experience for tourists.

Isfahan villages

Tabriz Blue Mosque

The beauty of Tabriz Blue Mosque

Tabriz Blue Mosque: One of the most famous attractions of Tabriz is the Blue(kaboud) Mosque. This unique mosque is one of the 4 blue mosques in the world.

This wonderful mosque was built in the 9th century AH during the Qaraqoyunlu period by order of Jahan Shah.

This mosque is also known by other names such as Mozaffariyeh mansion and Jahanshah mosque.

During the tragic events that took place for the mosque, the mosque was severely destroyed and damaged, but parts of the mosque are still standing.

An earthquake occurred in 1780 AD as a result of which the domes of the mosque collapsed.

The Mozaffariyeh complex (Blue Mosque) before the damage and destruction included a school, khanghah (place of residence, education and gathering of Sufis), mosque and library. Only a small part of the mosque remains from this complex.

The blue mosque, full of colors and patterns, is also known as the turquoise of Islam due to its special color.

Architecture of Tabriz blue mosque

Most of the mosque is made of brick, although some of the rare stones have been used.

Tabriz Blue Mosque is built in the style of Iranian and Islamic architecture. Most of this mosque is made of brick and decorated with beautiful tiles. In the decoration of the mosque, Moaragh tiles (wood inlaid working), inscriptions with the Thuluth and Arabesque motifs and marble slabs have been used.

Azure and turquoise tiles with a combination of white and black tiles have created a special color contrast.

These attractive tiles have given a special effect to the atmosphere of Tabriz Blue Mosque.

The mosque consists of two domes in the southern part. The large dome belongs to the mosque and the small dome to the Jahanshah family tomb.

A special feature of the mosque is the Sassanid architecture, which is the result of dividing the weight of the dome by building several columns. No wooden skeletons or structures were built under the dome. Therefore, most of the domes were damaged during the earthquake. After that, no one was able to rebuild those domes.

The interesting and recurring architecture of the mosque is parallel columns and square Sahn(courtyard in Islamic architecture).

Around the largest Shabestan of the mosque, there are continuous porticos connected by vault.

Other attractions of Tabriz Blue Mosque include its abortion of gold and azure. This roof has given a beautiful effect to the mosque.

In the past, before the demolition of the building, there were mosques, schools, baths, khanghah and libraries in the large courtyard.

The tiles of the Mihrab (a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla) of the mosque, although destroyed today, are very significant. The Mihrab is tiled with beautiful tiles and an inscription with verses from the Quran.

In most parts of the mosque, calligraphy of the Thuluth and Nasta’liq can be seen.

Although many of the tiles at the entrance to the mosque have been destroyed over time, it is still considered the entrance of the identity card of this place. It can be seen on the remaining inscription on the name of Mozaffariyeh mansion.

There are inscriptions around the mosque on which the verses of the Qur’an and the story of the victories of the Qaraquyunlus are written.

This writing of the expeditions on the mosque and the construction of such a magnificent building shows the power and authority of the Jahanshah.

The inscription was covered in gold but was stolen during the earthquake and the destruction of the building.

In the Sardab (a house that is built underground to shelter in the heat and keep water and food there to stay cool) there are two tombs that are said to be the burial place of Jahanshah and his wife, but unfortunately, they are empty today.

After the catastrophic earthquake, this mosque was severely destroyed and most of its beautiful buildings were destroyed and there is no sign of them anymore. After many destructions, a great effort was made to rebuild this place by the most prominent Iranian architects. But Tabriz Abi Mosque never returned to its former glory and beauty.

Tabriz Blue Mosque is so attractive that even after many damages, it still attracts the attention of visitors.

Choose your tour or tailor-made (customize) your tour with Oak Travel Agency you see the beauty of this city and attractions.