Lut desert

Lut Desert

Lut Desert


Lut desert is located in the southeast of Iran. The title of the most pristine spot in Iran has been given to Lut Desert. “Lut” in Balochi language means naked, thirsty and empty of everything.

  The major part of this great desert is sand.

  The time of formation of most deserts goes back to the third geological period, which were ancient lakes, and now the salt left over from their evaporation in the past prevents the growth of any plant in these areas. For this reason, geologists refer to the vast region of southeastern Iran as Lut Desert.

The vast area of Lut desert includes parts of the three vast provinces of Sistan and Baluchistan, South Khorasan and Kerman and extends from north to south. About 70% of this vast desert is in Kerman province and 30% is in South Khorasan and Sistan and Baluchistan provinces. Is located.

  The average length of Lut desert is estimated to be 900 km from north to south and 300 km from west to east. Due to the vastness of Lut desert, different regions with different climates and geographical features have been created in it.

Different parts of Lut desert

North Lut desert

In Northern Lut, there are many sedimentary and volcanic mountains and hills that have caused numerous earthquakes in this region.

The northernmost area of Lut desert, most of which is within the boundaries of South Khorasan and Birjand provinces, is considered a vast area whose height reaches 1000 meters in the northernmost parts and decreases to 500 meters as it moves towards the south.

Central lut

  Central Lut with 162 km length and 52 km width is known as “Chale Lut”. Central Lut is the most different part of the Lut desert, which is covered with huge masses of sand.There are scattered salt and chalk deserts in the central Lut.

South Lot

The southernmost region of Lut desert includes a major part of Kerman province and northern Sistan and Baluchistan. This region is more fertile than other parts in terms of vegetation and remains of ancient civilizations. It is divided into three parts in terms of geology:



This area is known as Hamada and it is full of big and small stones that are artistically placed together. That’s why Dasht Sar is also called Sangfarsh desert. Wind erosion, severe temperature changes and erosion by running water are the reasons for the existence of such an area that has no vegetation.


 Kalut is a local name that refers to deep ditches and huge sand pyramids that have emerged as a result of soil erosion. Lut Desert Kalut are located in an area of ​​80 km wide and 145 km long and are considered a unique phenomenon in the world. The reason for the existence of these Kalut is the erosion by the Shore River and the 120-day winds of Sistan, which have created the most spectacular attraction of Lut.

Sand dunes

 an area of ​​50 thousand hectares is covered with sand dunes. The height of some of these crescent-shaped hills reaches 500 meters.

Gandom Beriyan

Gandom beriyan on the west of the Lut, there are hills covered with stones and black volcanic lava, which has an area of ​​480 square kilometers. This area is devoid of life in the summer season, the air temperature is more than 71 degrees Celsius, and no living thing survives. The black covering of the area causes the air temperature to rise sharply. Being at a low altitude (400 meters above sea level) has also been declared as one of the reasons for the extreme heat in this area.


According to reports, in 2005, the infrared radiometer of NASA’s “Ecoai” satellite measured the temperature of the central areas of Lut desert at 70.7 degrees Celsius.

Vegetation and fauna of Lut desert

 In the central parts of Lut desert, there is no special plant and animal life; But in some days of the year when the weather conditions are more favorable, temporary life is observed. In the spring season in Dasht Sar region, after limited seasonal rains, grass plants grow and dry in a short time.

There are many species of plants in the Rig yalan area, including Calligonum and Haloxylon. The density of this vegetation is much higher in East Lut. In 20 km of Shahdad area, you can also see Tamarisk bushes. One of the amazing and unique phenomena of Lut desert are the sand pots (Nabkha). With a height of 10 meters, these Nabkhas are the tallest in the world, and they are surrounded by Tamarisk bushes. The tallest Nabkha in the African Sahara is only three meters high.

Animals that are resistant to dehydration live in Lut desert. These animals include all kinds of snakes and carrion-eating birds, Jaculus, foxes and Sand cats, and all kinds of Agamas.

  About 70 species of birds with white color have also been seen in Lut desert. The reason for their white color is less heat absorption. The water needed by the bird is also provided by eating insects or dew that is formed due to the temperature difference between day and night.


Lut desert at night

The temperature difference between night and day in the Lut desert is noticeable due to the lack of vegetation. Plants have a significant impact on the weather. Since no photosynthesis occurs in the desert, the temperature drops a lot. The heat of the day in the desert is not absorbed due to the lack of insulation of the sand to maintain the temperature and store the heat; Therefore, desert nights are very cold. There is a significant difference between Lut and other desert regions of the world, which is the 120-day winds of Sistan during the summer season, which makes the air temperature not increase during the day and not decrease at night. In fact, these winds play the role of regulating the temperature of Lut desert.

Secrets of the Lut Desert

Lut desert is considered the most inaccessible desert in the world. Shahdad’s Kalut are full of secrets. Some people believe that this is the cursed city of the “Lot people” who were turned into stone, and this is the reason why it was named the desert of Lut.

 The Kaluts are full of unknowns and there are still parts where no human has been. However, in the marginal areas of Lut and Shahdad deserts, artifacts such as pottery and stone vessels from ancient civilizations dating back to 3000 BC have been discovered.

 Parts of the central desert are so burning that even bacteria cannot live, but in an area called “Zangi Ahmad”, where there is no trace of water or life, there are traces of a dilapidated wooden tower surrounded by broken pottery and colored glass. has been

 In recent years, a fossil of a dinosaur’s nail has been discovered in Lut desert, which needs a more detailed investigation.

desert lake

One of the wonders of the Lut desert is the presence of running water, especially in the marginal areas of the desert. The dried riverbeds indicate ancient and abundant rivers in the past. These rivers flow a little during seasonal rains.


Shahdad’s Kaluts

Shahdad Kaluts has an area of 11,000 square kilometers and is a mysterious, unknown and frightening area; Because there are few signs of life in this area. The ancient city of Shahdad is considered to be the center of government of “Arata” tribes in ancient Iran. This is the place of discovery of the oldest metal flag in the world, which is called “Shahdad Flag”.

Shahdad’s Kaluts date back to 20,000 years ago.



The night sky of the desert is a paradise for astronomers, photographers and researchers due to the pristine nature of Lut compared to other deserts of Iran.

Lut desert has so many unique and different attractions that it arouses the interest of tourists. In addition to watching the legendary Kaluts, various side entertainments are also provided for tourists such as off-roading, camel riding, walking and photography.



Lut desert have been registered in the world list of UNESCO and by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular desert.

shiraz | Persian garden

The Persian Garden

The Persian Garden

Persian garden: Iranian garden has always played an important role throughout history

 in Iranian life and architecture, and it is one of the oldest and most important garden styles in the world. The important role of Persian gardens can be seen in the paintings of Kamaluddin Behzad, in the poems of Khayyam and Hafez, Saadi, in Persian fiction and Found in Iranian carpets.

Persian gardens were built in two categories (garden-palace) and (garden-tomb). Garden-palaces were built for kings and rulers, and the palace was generally placed in the center of the garden. Garden-tomb grounds were also built with the inspiration of heaven for the graves of important people.

The word garden (pardis) in Persian is the root of the word paradise (heaven) in English. Since the time of the Sassanids and then in the Islamic period, poetry and literature have always been full of respect and love for nature, and the aesthetic aspect of the garden was more important than before, and an attempt was made to make them an allegory of heaven. In this regard, in the design of Iranian gardens, descriptions of heaven were used to bring a place of comfort.

In the structure of Persian Garden, the slope of the land and access to water were the determining factors.

Slope gardens were built in such a way that the water flows in the direction of the slope.

Water has a historical place in Iran and has been a messenger of light and purity. This position is due to the lack of water in a country where a large percentage of it is desert. Water played a key role in the creation of Persian Garden, and the reason for the construction of historical Persian garden was the presence of natural springs or aqueducts in the region. The size of the Persian garden that was built also depended on the amount of water that was available for irrigation.

 Iranians mostly built gardens on sloping land and by placing stairs in the water path, they increased the sound of the water flow and used its pleasant sound.

 The use of fountains had a great effect on the appearance and beauty of Persian Garden. The water features, which were made with different designs and made of stone with white chips, gave a special effect to the gardens.

The pattern of four gardens is the next principle of making Persian Garden. In this pattern, four streams reach the center of the garden and divide the garden into four parts. The concept of the four gardens pattern is attributed to the following four concepts: four heavenly streams, four geographical directions, four seasons, four Classical elements.

Persian Garden have been registered in the world list of UNESCO. Visit the most spectacular gardens of Iran by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel Agency.

Pasargad garden

Pasargad garden and its complex of palaces are considered as the most enduring innovations of the Achaemenid period and the first example of Persian garden construction. This style of gardening has been used as a model in Iran and neighboring countries.

Cyrus the Great had personally ordered how to create the garden of Pasargad and how to plant the trees.

  The whole garden has an area of about 8 hectares, and 900 meters of limestone canal was built to bring water all over it. The way of distribution and division of water in the complex of gardens and palaces and the combination of architecture with nature are among the features that raise this garden as a mother model in Iranian gardening.

Shahzadeh Mahan Historical Garden

Shazdeh Mahan garden is one of the full-fledged Persian garden, which has been turned into a green garden in the heart of the desert with its unique engineering. This garden, which is on the UNESCO list, is one of the most visited tourist places in Iran.

 Prince’s Garden was located on the Silk Road and was a suitable place to build a beautiful aristocratic garden, which shows Iran’s water engineering in that period in a good way.

 The location of the garden on a sloping ground has led to the construction of streams full of steps in it, which are always flowing and double the beautiful appearance of the garden.

 The garden mansion is located at the end of it, and by standing on its upper porch, in addition to the views of the garden, you can also enjoy the views outside the garden.

Shiraz Eram Garden

Shiraz is a city full of beautiful gardens. But Eram Garden is famous for its fragrant orange trees and evergreen cedars.

Eram Garden with a mansion located in its heart, which is unique and inspiring in terms of architecture and interior design. The construction of the garden dates back to the Seljuk period and has been renovated many times since then.

Eram garden is placed in the category of garden-palaces. The garden is rectangular in shape and surrounded by mud walls. The mansion is placed at a height above the garden level so that they have a general view of the garden. The large pool in front of the building adds a lot of grandeur to the building. A water stream flows along the pool, which is divided into other streams.

Dowlat Abad Garden, Yazd

Dowlat Abad Garden is one of the oldest gardens in Yazd. To supply water and build a garden, a 65-kilometer-long aqueduct was dug through which water was brought from Mehriz to Dowlat Abad Garden. This garden is very full of water and many people used to come to the garden to watch its fountains and streams. The many watery pools crystallize the feeling of vitality in the visitors.

The architecture of Dowlat Abad mansion and its 33-meter Windcatcher, which is the tallest wind turbine in the world, brings a cool atmosphere in the heat of summer with the combination of wind and water. The garden is very symmetrical and is divided into two parts, the outer garden and the inner garden. The axis of symmetry of the garden is the blue sky, which is about 200 meters long. The arrangement of trees along the main axis has led visitors’ eyes and focused the garden on the main mansion.

Fin Garden, Kashan

Fin Garden is one of the manifestations of Iranian architecture and design art. The design of the garden and the use of water streams, pools, and trees have given this garden a lively appearance.

According to historical documents, the old garden was during Al-Boyeh era, whose initial design was done by Ghiyasuddin Jamshid Kashani. The garden was completely destroyed due to the earthquake and the Mughal attack. However, during the Safavid era, the current building was revived with the design of Sheikh Baha’i.

  Fin garden has many buildings in its collection such as bath, palace and etc.

Bagh Fin was considered one of the most famous historical buildings and very important events happened in this building, including the murder of Amir Kabir.

Abbas Abad Historical Garden, Behshahr

Abbas Abad Historical Persian garden in Behshahr is the most important non-desert garden in Iran, which, in addition to its historical attraction, also has a unique natural attraction. This garden is one of the largest Persian garden and its architecture is valuable. This complex is one of the non-desert gardens of Iran, which was built in the 11th century by the order of Shah Abbas Safavi.

 The complex includes a garden, a lake and a bathhouse, and a four-arched brick building is located in the center of the lake. The water of the lake is supplied by winter rains.

The Persian garden of this complex is built on a natural hill, which was created by cutting the hill, creating a matching and stepped garden. This unique garden is built like other Persian garden and is one of the most unique gardens in Iran.

Chehel Sotoun, Isfahan

Chehel Sotoun is one of the examples of Persia garden left over from the Safavid period. This garden is a small part of the vast panoramic garden that Shah Abbas I created by building a palace in the center of the garden of the first Chehel Sotoun Palace. Despite the damage, this garden still has stunning beauty for visitors.

  The vegetation of the garden includes Persian pine, elm, black maple and sycamore trees. The area of the palace is 2120 square meters and the building of the mansion is one meter higher than the level of the garden.

Pahlavanpur Garden,Yazd

Pahlavanpur Garden is one of the most abundant and greenest gardens in Mehr Riz-Yazd. This garden dates back to the Qajar period. Three important aqueducts of the city pass through this garden. Despite the dry and hot climate of Yazd province, pomegranates, persimmons and almonds grow in this garden, and this is due to the abundance of water in this garden.

The garden complex includes the main palace, stables, Ab anbar, central courtyard, bathroom, kitchen, etc.

Akbariyeh Garden, Birjand

Akbariye Garden with an area of ​​about 4 hectares is one of the tourist attractions of South Khorasan province.

Experts attribute the beginning of the construction of the garden to the end of the Zandiya period or the beginning of the Qajar period, but the construction of this garden was completed in the Qajar period.

The garden was created on a sloping ground and the mansion was built in the highest part of the garden. The main two-story mansion is located in the central part and has a special symmetry and proportion.

  Many shady trees have been planted and most of the garden is devoted to planting fruit trees and medicinal plants.

 There is a main permanent water stream and several secondary streams in the garden, the sound of which is very pleasant. A large pool, one of the important elements of Iranian gardens, occupies a major part of the garden space. This pool has a square platform in the middle that stands out in the garden.

Persian Gardens  are registered in the world list of UNESCO. By joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel Agency, visit these unique historical monuments and experience a pleasant travel experience.

kabutar khane in isfahan-pigoen house | passage on Iran history tour

Pigeon tower (kabutar khane)

Strange architecture of Isfahan kabutar khane(pigeon house)

Pigeon Tower or kabutar khane is a building that was built in the central regions of Iran, especially Isfahan (more info about Isfahan monuments). These towers were built around farms and gardens. There are about 3,000 pigeon towers around Isfahan, but few of them remain today. Most people mistakenly believe that pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) are built for homing pigeon. But Isfahan pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) were built to collect pigeon manure. Pigeon manure has been used in various industries in the past. The owners of these pigeon house have made a lot of money from the sale of these fertilizers.


pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) were buildings that were common in the desert and central regions of Iran about 400 years ago. These towers were built near gardens and agricultural fields. These buildings were built in the form of cylinders with latticed windows. The windows were made so that only pigeons could enter and exit. This type of architecture kept the pigeons safe from birds of prey such as eagles and owls. A well was dug in the middle of the tower so that the pigeons could have access to water. The materials used to make the pigeon house were clay and mud. This architecture creates cool weather in summer and warm weather in winter.

Inside of these tower in isfahan, a large number of small balconies seamlessly cover the interior walls. These balconies have been used as pigeon nests. The walls are constructed in such a way that they have a slope towards the interior so that the excrement falls directly into the central cavity and dries. These towers are very durable buildings due to the use of mortar in their construction and have survived to this day.

The Strange architecture of towers is such that some people who do not know the Isfahan pigeon towers (kabutar khaneh) mistakenly think that these towers used to be a military fortress.

To protect the pigeons, the towers (kabutar khaneh) were built to protect them from invaders.

The holes in the tower (windows) were exactly the size of a pigeon. As a result, large birds such as owls and crows are less likely to enter.

But the tower builders used other effective ways to prevent pigeons from attacking.

the owners of these towers used plants such as frankincense and pepper to ward off pests such as bedbugs and fleas.

The vibrations of the pigeons’ wings in the tower also kept snakes and mice away from the pigeon house.

In these towers (kabutar khaneh), there is no food for pigeons. During the day, the pigeons go out to find food and water, and at night they return to the tower (kabutar khaneh).

The capacity of some Isfahan pigeon towers (kabutar khaneh) reaches 40,000 pigeons. Therefore, about 70,000 kilograms of manure was obtained annually from these pigeons. This amount of manure was good for both the owners of the towers and the farmers. Farmers used these manures to fertilize their farmland. For this reason, many pigeon towers (kabutar khaneh) were built in this province. manure has been the main use of pigeon excrement, but it has also been used in the leather industry and gunpowder production.

Mardavij pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh)

One of the most famous Isfahan pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) is Mardavij  pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) and the other one is In Houyeh Village pigeon tower. Mardavij pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) is designed like a flower. In the center of this flower is a large circle and eight circles around it. The height of this tower is 18 meters and its diameter is 16 meters. There are 15,000 nests in this three-story tower. This tower has been registered in the list of national monuments of Iran.

 Radan pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh)

Radan pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) is one of the few pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) built during the Qajar period. The height of this tower is 10 meters and the diameter of its cylinder is 13 meters. The architecture of this pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) is in the form of two nested cylinders.

To visit Radan Tower, you have to go 3 km south of Isfahan.

Be sure to visit these pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) during your trip to Isfahan. It will be very interesting to visit the Isfahan pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) and get acquainted with their architecture.

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