Isfahan villages

Tabriz Blue Mosque

The beauty of Tabriz Blue Mosque

Tabriz Blue Mosque: One of the most famous attractions of Tabriz is the Blue(kaboud) Mosque. This unique mosque is one of the 4 blue mosques in the world.

This wonderful mosque was built in the 9th century AH during the Qaraqoyunlu period by order of Jahan Shah.

This mosque is also known by other names such as Mozaffariyeh mansion and Jahanshah mosque.

During the tragic events that took place for the mosque, the mosque was severely destroyed and damaged, but parts of the mosque are still standing.

An earthquake occurred in 1780 AD as a result of which the domes of the mosque collapsed.

The Mozaffariyeh complex (Blue Mosque) before the damage and destruction included a school, khanghah (place of residence, education and gathering of Sufis), mosque and library. Only a small part of the mosque remains from this complex.

The blue mosque, full of colors and patterns, is also known as the turquoise of Islam due to its special color.

Architecture of Tabriz blue mosque

Most of the mosque is made of brick, although some of the rare stones have been used.

Tabriz Blue Mosque is built in the style of Iranian and Islamic architecture. Most of this mosque is made of brick and decorated with beautiful tiles. In the decoration of the mosque, Moaragh tiles (wood inlaid working), inscriptions with the Thuluth and Arabesque motifs and marble slabs have been used.

Azure and turquoise tiles with a combination of white and black tiles have created a special color contrast.

These attractive tiles have given a special effect to the atmosphere of Tabriz Blue Mosque.

The mosque consists of two domes in the southern part. The large dome belongs to the mosque and the small dome to the Jahanshah family tomb.

A special feature of the mosque is the Sassanid architecture, which is the result of dividing the weight of the dome by building several columns. No wooden skeletons or structures were built under the dome. Therefore, most of the domes were damaged during the earthquake. After that, no one was able to rebuild those domes.

The interesting and recurring architecture of the mosque is parallel columns and square Sahn(courtyard in Islamic architecture).

Around the largest Shabestan of the mosque, there are continuous porticos connected by vault.

Other attractions of Tabriz Blue Mosque include its abortion of gold and azure. This roof has given a beautiful effect to the mosque.

In the past, before the demolition of the building, there were mosques, schools, baths, khanghah and libraries in the large courtyard.

The tiles of the Mihrab (a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla) of the mosque, although destroyed today, are very significant. The Mihrab is tiled with beautiful tiles and an inscription with verses from the Quran.

In most parts of the mosque, calligraphy of the Thuluth and Nasta’liq can be seen.

Although many of the tiles at the entrance to the mosque have been destroyed over time, it is still considered the entrance of the identity card of this place. It can be seen on the remaining inscription on the name of Mozaffariyeh mansion.

There are inscriptions around the mosque on which the verses of the Qur’an and the story of the victories of the Qaraquyunlus are written.

This writing of the expeditions on the mosque and the construction of such a magnificent building shows the power and authority of the Jahanshah.

The inscription was covered in gold but was stolen during the earthquake and the destruction of the building.

In the Sardab (a house that is built underground to shelter in the heat and keep water and food there to stay cool) there are two tombs that are said to be the burial place of Jahanshah and his wife, but unfortunately, they are empty today.

After the catastrophic earthquake, this mosque was severely destroyed and most of its beautiful buildings were destroyed and there is no sign of them anymore. After many destructions, a great effort was made to rebuild this place by the most prominent Iranian architects. But Tabriz Abi Mosque never returned to its former glory and beauty.

Tabriz Blue Mosque is so attractive that even after many damages, it still attracts the attention of visitors.

Choose your tour or tailor-made (customize) your tour with Oak Travel Agency you see the beauty of this city and attractions.

arg-e-Alishah | Travel to Iran |

Arg-e- Alishah

History of Arg-e- Alishah in Tabriz

Arg-e-Alishah: Throughout history, many structures have been built for certain purposes. Some of them are still standing, and others only have names left. Some structures have also been repositioned over time and some deformed.

Arg-e- Alishah in Tabriz is one of these buildings that due to the destruction of the building, its history and use is definitely not clear. That is why there are many contradictions about the Arg and the use of this building is not known.

There are many historical monuments in the city of Tabriz. Buildings that each belong to a specific historical period and depict the glory and architecture of that historical period.

One of the most famous of these buildings is Arg-e-Alishah. This Arg was built in the 8th century AH in the old square of Tabriz. The Arg dates back to the patriarchal period. What remains of this magnificent building today is the only south Iwan (porch) of the Arg, which is 33 meters high.

During the excavations, there are many narrations about the purpose of building Arg-e- Alishah. Some consider the reason for building the Arg to be the construction of a large mosque by order of Taj al-Din Alisha Gilani (one of the patrons of the patriarchal period). But some consider the construction of the tomb as the reason for building the Arg.

Arg-e- Alishah is the tallest brick building in Tabriz. The width of the Iwan(porch) is 30 meters and its walls are 10.5 meters wide.

A feature that makes this Arg unique is its huge vault, which is wider than Taq Kasra. Therefore, Arg-e- Alishah in Tabriz is one of the special buildings.

Construction history

To build Alisha Citadel in Tabriz, a skilled architect, a master (Falaki Tabrizi) was selected to build a magnificent building in Tabriz. A building that is larger than Taq Kasra and can be seen from all parts of Tabriz.

Due to the rush in the construction of this building, the original structure was not built strong. Part of the roof dome collapsed during construction.

There are many narrations about the completion of the construction of Arg-e-Alishah in Tabriz. Some sources say that after Alisha’s death, the construction of the citadel was left unfinished. It is said that Alishah’s body was also buried next to the Arg.

Destruction of Arg-e-Alishah

During the first Iran-Russia war, Arg-e-Alishah became one of the important defensive points due to its excellent location and high altitude.

Therefore, during the war, the Arg was used as an ammunition depot by order of Abbas Mirza (Crown Prince FatAli Shah).

In the second Iran-Russia war and after the constitutional period, people used this Arg to defend themselves against enemy forces.

In the book (New History) written by Jahangir Mirza Qajar, it is stated: “The Russians, who were dissatisfied with the defense of the people of Tabriz, stormed the Arg and destroyed it. But this did not satisfy them either. Due to the negligence of Russian forces, part of the Arg caught fire while moving ammunition.”

During the Russian invasion, holes were made for shooting and placing the cannon on the walls of the Arg, changing the shape of the building.

Other reasons for the destruction of Arg-e-Alishah in Tabriz, we can mention the numerous earthquakes that have occurred in this city. The earthquake has caused a lot of damage to the Arg and has caused cracks in its walls.

Architecture of Arg-e-Alishah

  Arg-e-Alishah in Tabriz is a brick structure. This building is built in the style of Azeri architecture.

Durable materials such as lime, mortar and brick have been used in the construction of the Arg.

  Many wooden boards (700 years old) have been used in the construction of the Arg. The reason for using wood was to reduce the weight of the building for more flexibility against earthquakes.

Only three high walls of the old Arg building remain, which is in the shape of Iwan . According to experts, this section was used as a Shabestan.

One of the interesting things about building walls is that they continue up to 7 meters inside the ground.

After the end of the occupation of Tabriz and at the end of the Qajar rule, new structures were built in and around the Arg-e-Alishah.

Buildings such as Nejat School (the first modern school in Iran), the Kolah Farangi Mansion and the Lion and Sun Theater

Unfortunately, these buildings were destroyed during different periods.

Arg-e-Alishah in Tabriz is still standing after all these unfortunate events. This magnificent citadel is a sign of the greatness of its time.

Arg-e-Alishah still has its attraction and attracts many tourists every year. so You can book your Iran tour with Oak travel gency to visit this and other Iran monuments.

Naghsh-e jahan square in isfahan | passage on Iran history tour

Naghsh-e Jahan Square

The most special place in the world, Naghsh-e Jahan Square

Naghsh-e Jahan Square: Everyone has heard the description of Isfahan’s historical monuments. Historic places whose splendor attracts the attention of every tourist. The most special square in the world, Naghsh-e Jahan square is one of the most famous of these places. Most of Isfahan’s historical monuments date back to the Safavid era. An era that reflects the economic prosperity of that era. After many years and many unfortunate events that have happened to these places, it still attracts the attention of tourists. Naghsh-e Jahan square is among the places that every person should visit at least once. So, join us to get more acquainted with the collection of the role of the world of buildings around it.

Naghsh-e Jahan Square

Before Safavid times, there was a beautiful garden called “Naghsh-e Jahan square” in Isfahan. The name of this garden is taken from a city that is called Nakhchivan today.

During the Safavid period, after the transfer of the capital from Qazvin to Isfahan, a lot of economic prosperity was created. Therefore, many buildings were ordered to be built.

From the field that was called “New Square” at this time.

 The old mansion in Naghsh-e Jahan Garden was demolished at the same time as the square was built. Its materials were used in the construction of the square. For this reason, the new square was called Naghsh-e Jahan Square.

By the order of Shah Abbas Safavid, the original building of this square was built on the banks of the Zayandehrood River in 1011 AH. Over time, by 1025, its construction and other buildings around the world were completed.

This square was built by famous architects such as Sheikh Baha’i, Master Ali Akbar and Mohammad Reza Isfahani.

The length of Naghsh-e Jahan Square is more than 500 meters and its width is 160 meters. Around the square, 200 rooms are located on two floors.

At the same time, by order of Henry IV in 1612, the Doge Square in Paris was built with a square design, each side of which was not more than 140 square meters.

  This square is wider than Moscow Red Square, which was one of the most famous squares in the world.

  Even the role of the world has a superior historical perspective compared to Concorde Square in Paris. The role of the world square is the second largest square in the world after Tiananmen Square in Beijing.

There are four amazing monuments in different parts of the square. During different periods, arches were built around the square to protect the building. But over time, the arches have become modern cells.

 Also, this square is very similar to Shah Qazvin Square, Amir Chakhmaq Square in Yazd and Saheb Abad Square in Qazvin.

Simultaneously with the reign of the last Safavid king (Sultan Hussein), Naghsh-e Jahan square lost its glory and grandeur.

All the atmospheres and trees around the square dried up, and this destroyed the prosperity of the square. The process of destruction intensified during the Ashraf Afghan invasion of Isfahan.

Due to the change of capital from Isfahan, neglect of places and their destruction continued until the Qajar period.

Many parts of the mansion were destroyed due to the negligence of the Qajar kings.

During the reign of the first Pahlavi, Reza Khan began to rebuild historic buildings and cells around Naghsh-e Jahan square, and economic prosperity returned to the Naghsh-e Jahan market.

According to the travelogue, Naghsh-e Jahan Square has been the site of countless ceremonies and rituals. These include polo, fireworks, military parades and patriotic celebrations.

Naghsh-e Jahan Square has been registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Aali Qapo Palace

By order of Shah Abbas I, this building was built after the transfer of the capital from Qazvin to Isfahan, between 973 and 977 AD. In the Safavid period, the Aali Qapo mansion in Isfahan was known as the “Dolat khane Palace ” and the “Dolat khane Mobarake Naghsh-e Jahan square”.

This palace was built and completed in 5phase between 70 and 100 years.

In the first phase of construction, this palace was only the entrance to other royal palaces.

 In the second phase, due to the expansion of the capital and the increase in population, the need to expand the building was felt. For this reason, the third, fourth and half floors of the fifth floor were added.

In the third phase, the palace building was completed with the addition of the top floor (known as the music hall).

 In the fourth phase, a porch was added to Naghsh-e Jahan Square to increase the length of the palace.

And in the fifth phase, 18 columns were added to the porch. The construction of royal stairs and the construction and completion of the building’s water supply system to transfer water to the floors, especially the copper pool of the porch, were other constructions of this phase.

Aali Qapu Palace has amazing architecture. You will see a different number of floors if you look at it from any side. The palace has five floors from the back view, three floors from the side and two floors from the side of Naghsh-e Jahan square.

From the top of Aali Qapu mansion, all the views of Isfahan can be seen. Aali Qapu height is 48 Meters.

Miniatures and spectacular stucco of Aali Qapu Palace were made by Reza Abbasi, a famous artist of the Safavid period. Each floor and each hall in Aali Qapu Palace have its own design.

This unique architecture and palace inscriptions will attract the attention of any viewer.

Audio Hall (Aali Qapu)

  The audio hall is one of the sixth floors halls. The audio hall is completely plastered. This hall has an area of 63 square meters and has the shape of Chalipa (Persian cross). One of the features of this hall is the presence of arches that have created an acoustic environment. This feature allows full sounds to reach the entire hall.

Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque

Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is one of the historical mosques with masterpiece architecture of the Safavid era of Isfahan. This mosque was built between 1602 and 1619 AD by order of Shah Abbas I. The tiles of this mosque have been done by Professor Mohammad Reza Isfahani.

The main reason for building the mosque is to honor one of the religious figures named Sheikh Lotfollah Misi. He is one of the prominent scholars of the Safavid era.

Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque was built on the ruins of a mosque that used to be in this place.

Only Shah Abbas and the royal family were allowed to enter the mosque. The general public could not enter the mosque and worship.

The architectural style of Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is similar to other Isfahani structures. But this mosque has some major differences from other mosques built across the country. Lack of minaret and Shabestan is one of the differences of this mosque. On the other hand, the entrance of the mosque has several steps.

One of the main reasons why this mosque lacks Shabestan and entrance courtyard is to create a symmetry with Naghsh-e Jahan Square and to place the Aali qapu mansion in front of the mosque.

For this reason, a courtyard facing the qibla in front of the mosque has not been built.

Another difference of this mosque is that it does not face the qibla. As a result, the architects were forced to rotate 45 degrees in order to position the mosque in the direction of the qibla.

But the design and construction of the mosque has been done with such elegance that no angle or even skew in the building and exterior is known.

The dome of Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is lower than the dome of other mosques.

The dome of Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is built on 8 gabled arches. At the top of the dome, 16 lattice windows are installed that allow daylight into the courtyard. The windows are made at a distance of 170 cm from each other. In addition to passing light, they are also responsible for air conditioning.

Islamic motifs on the windows caused the light to enter the mosque with astonishing refraction.

The outer part of the dome has colorful tiles and delicate designs that come in different colors at different times of the day and according to the angle of the sun.

For example, the dome is pink in the light of dawn, pink, cream in the direct light of noon, and brick in the setting sun.

The exterior of the dome is decorated with mosaic tiles in pea background color. At the bottom of the dome, there are inscriptions in the third line with azure background color.

The seven-colored tiles of the mosque, in which the predominant color is blue and green, have turned the interior of the mosque and the Shabestan into a special space.

The Imam Mosque

Isfahan Imam Mosque is one of the most important buildings of the Safavid era. This mosque was formerly known as the Shah Mosque, the New Soltani Mosque and the Abbasid Mosque.

Imam Mosque is the most important mosque in the Safavid period in terms of the grandeur of the building and the abundance of decorations in the city of Isfahan.

The construction of the mosque began by the order of Shah Abbas I in 1020 AH to beautify the square.

This mosque represents a unique example of Iranian tile and carving art in the 11th century. Recorded dates in the mosque show that the decoration of the mosque was completed during the reign of Shah Abbas I.

The inscription on the entrance of the mosque in the Sols writing shows that Shah Abbas built this mosque from his property. He has given the reward of this work to his grandfather Shah Tahmasb.

Isfahan Imam Mosque is built with 18 million pieces of bricks and 474 thousand tiles. Marble can also be seen in abundance in mosques;

The main Shah Mosque is covered with silver and gold. On this door, poems in Nasta’liq script can be seen.

Large pieces of monolithic marble and precious Sangab have been used in the mosque. This is one of the valuable features of Imam Mosque.

The new Haftrang method has been used in the tiles of the mosque.

Isfahan Imam Mosque has seven Sangab. These Sangabs are:

Entrance Sangab made of Jasper

West Chehelsotun Sangab made of Jasper

Eastern Chehelsotun Sangab made of lime

Western dome Sangab made of marble

Eastern dome Sangab made of marble

Qaisaria Gate

The historical monument of Qaisaria Gate is located in the north of Naghsh-e Jahan Square and in front of Imam Mosque. This building was built by Master Ali Akbar Isfahani during the reign of Shah Abbas I.

 The reason for choosing this name is that the entrance of this market was built like one of the buildings of Caesarea in Asia Minor (Turkey). This door is decorated with porcelain bricks and beautiful paintings.

Qaisaria Gate was the most important entrance gate of Isfahan.

Today, there is not much left of the beautiful paintings on the porch. But the gate of Caesarea is reminiscent of the glory of Isfahan in the Safavid era.

 Most tourists have spoken in their travelogues about the glory of this Caesarea gate.

This article introduced you to a small part of the glory of Naghsh-e Jahan square. Naghsh-e Jahan square is one of the first places to visit on a trip to Isfahan. Seeing this place at night, due to the beautiful lighting, is particularly attractive. But you should not miss seeing this amazing place during the day. The best time to see the charms of this mosque is in the morning. Sunlight gives a special effect to these mosques.

We hope that after getting acquainted with the Isfahan’s historical monuments specially Naghsh-e Jahan square, you will experience a good trip to this city with Oak Travel agency and visit more historical and cultural attractions in Iransquare

kabutar khane in isfahan-pigoen house | passage on Iran history tour

Pigeon tower (kabutar khane)

Strange architecture of Isfahan kabutar khane(pigeon house)

Pigeon Tower or kabutar khane is a building that was built in the central regions of Iran, especially Isfahan (more info about Isfahan monuments). These towers were built around farms and gardens. There are about 3,000 pigeon towers around Isfahan, but few of them remain today. Most people mistakenly believe that pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) are built for homing pigeon. But Isfahan pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) were built to collect pigeon manure. Pigeon manure has been used in various industries in the past. The owners of these pigeon house have made a lot of money from the sale of these fertilizers.


pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) were buildings that were common in the desert and central regions of Iran about 400 years ago. These towers were built near gardens and agricultural fields. These buildings were built in the form of cylinders with latticed windows. The windows were made so that only pigeons could enter and exit. This type of architecture kept the pigeons safe from birds of prey such as eagles and owls. A well was dug in the middle of the tower so that the pigeons could have access to water. The materials used to make the pigeon house were clay and mud. This architecture creates cool weather in summer and warm weather in winter.

Inside of these tower in isfahan, a large number of small balconies seamlessly cover the interior walls. These balconies have been used as pigeon nests. The walls are constructed in such a way that they have a slope towards the interior so that the excrement falls directly into the central cavity and dries. These towers are very durable buildings due to the use of mortar in their construction and have survived to this day.

The Strange architecture of towers is such that some people who do not know the Isfahan pigeon towers (kabutar khaneh) mistakenly think that these towers used to be a military fortress.

To protect the pigeons, the towers (kabutar khaneh) were built to protect them from invaders.

The holes in the tower (windows) were exactly the size of a pigeon. As a result, large birds such as owls and crows are less likely to enter.

But the tower builders used other effective ways to prevent pigeons from attacking.

the owners of these towers used plants such as frankincense and pepper to ward off pests such as bedbugs and fleas.

The vibrations of the pigeons’ wings in the tower also kept snakes and mice away from the pigeon house.

In these towers (kabutar khaneh), there is no food for pigeons. During the day, the pigeons go out to find food and water, and at night they return to the tower (kabutar khaneh).

The capacity of some Isfahan pigeon towers (kabutar khaneh) reaches 40,000 pigeons. Therefore, about 70,000 kilograms of manure was obtained annually from these pigeons. This amount of manure was good for both the owners of the towers and the farmers. Farmers used these manures to fertilize their farmland. For this reason, many pigeon towers (kabutar khaneh) were built in this province. manure has been the main use of pigeon excrement, but it has also been used in the leather industry and gunpowder production.

Mardavij pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh)

One of the most famous Isfahan pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) is Mardavij  pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) and the other one is In Houyeh Village pigeon tower. Mardavij pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) is designed like a flower. In the center of this flower is a large circle and eight circles around it. The height of this tower is 18 meters and its diameter is 16 meters. There are 15,000 nests in this three-story tower. This tower has been registered in the list of national monuments of Iran.

 Radan pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh)

Radan pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) is one of the few pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) built during the Qajar period. The height of this tower is 10 meters and the diameter of its cylinder is 13 meters. The architecture of this pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) is in the form of two nested cylinders.

To visit Radan Tower, you have to go 3 km south of Isfahan.

Be sure to visit these pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) during your trip to Isfahan. It will be very interesting to visit the Isfahan pigeon tower (kabutar khaneh) and get acquainted with their architecture.

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shiraz |



The glory and authority of Persepolis is reminiscent of the Achaemenid Empire

Persepolis: An ancient complex that is magnificent and ceremonial. This complex was built as the new capital of the Achaemenids in the land of the Persians. During the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held celebrations of two thousand five hundred years of the Persian Empire in the Persepolis complex. After the Islamic Revolution of Iran, the Persepolis complex was considered a relic of kings. But today, Persepolis can be considered the most lovable structure in Iran and among Iranians, as well as a symbol of the glory of the past.

After the Iranian Revolution of 1978, some extremists tried to destroy Persepolis by attacking Persepolis, but failed due to the opposition and resistance of local officials and people.

The construction of Persepolis complex in shiraz

The founder of this city was Darius the Great, but in later times, the sons of Darius the Great added buildings to this complex and expanded it. All the information that is available from the Achaemenid period is due to the tablets and inscriptions of this collection. After the arrival of Islam in Iran, this complex was called the collection of a thousand pillars or forty minarets. The oldest constructions of Persepolis date back to 518 BC. The construction of Persepolis complex in Shiraz has started on the western slope of Rahma or Mitra or Mehr mountains.

The Persepolis complex in shiraz was burnt down by Alexander the Great in 330 BC, and all the buildings in the Persepolis complex in shiraz remained in ruins. Remains and half-ruined buildings include the main entrance of Persepolis, which is known as Apadana Palace, and consists of a central hall with 36 columns and three 12-column porches in the northern, southern and eastern parts, whose north and east porches Opposite yards are connected and connected. The height of the plateau at the site of Apadana Palace is 16 meters and the height of its columns is 18 meters.

The architects, artists and specialists who were involved in the construction of the Persepolis complex in shiraz were composed of different nations under the influence of Achaemenid kings such as Assyrians, Egyptians, Uratuians, Babylonians, Ludians, Ionians, Hindus, Scythians, etc.

Drawings designed on the walls

In the Persepolis petroglyphs, no one can be seen in a state of disgrace, and the representatives of the nations are designed as a member of the great world community with an independent and dependent personality. In the Persepolis petroglyphs, the distance of each nation is separated by a cypress tree, which is a sacred tree. The classification of the representatives of nations is based on their culture and history or their distance and proximity. It is the guide of nations, Persian and material or Elamite, which is designated hand in hand to guide other nations, and people of all nations were free to use their clothes, culture and language. No attempt can be made to show the superiority or pride of the Persians over other nations. Representatives of the nations have extended their arms to each other as a sign of friendship. Having a cane is a sign of high position and rank, a long-striped hat is a sign of military status and a simple long hat is a sign of greatness and a short cylindrical hat is a sign of a court official and a royal guard and servants. The lithographic design of the Persepolis donors, each of whom climbs a flight of stairs carrying a gift. This design has been used in Hadish Palace (private palace of Xerxes Shah) and Thatcher Palace (private palace of Darius the Great). One of the unique features of Achaemenid masonry and architecture is carved and engraved boulders that are placed in the walls of stairs-passages that lead to the halls and palaces of celebrations and ceremonies.


The entrance to the platform is two steps facing each other in the northwestern part of the complex, which are like hands that bend their elbows and try to lift their enthusiasts off the ground and place them in their chests. These stairs have 111 wide and short stairs (10 cm high) on each side. This low height of the stairs for the comfort and grandeur of the guests (whose pictures are embossed on the walls of Persepolis in luxurious and long clothes) to be maintained when climbing.


At the top of the stairs is the entrance to Persepolis, the Great Gate or the Gate of Xerxes or the Gate of the Nations. The height of this building is 10 meters. This building had a main entrance and two exits, and today the remains of its gates are still standing. On the west and east gates, there is a design of winged men and a design of two stone cows with human heads. These gates are decorated at the top with six cuneiform inscriptions. After mentioning the name of Ahuramazda, these inscriptions briefly state that: “Everything that is beautiful is done at the request of Urmazd.”


Apadana palace

Apadana Palace or Bar Palace is one of the oldest palaces in Persepolis. This palace, which was built by the order of Darius the Great, was used to hold Nowruz celebrations and to receive representatives of countries dependent on the presence of the king. Apadana Palace has two sets of stairs in the north and east. The eastern stairs of this palace consist of two stairs, one to the south and the other to the north. On the walls of the stairs facing north, there are roles of high-ranking military and Persian military commanders. In these paintings, there are lotus flowers in the hands of these commanders. In front of the paintings of these military commanders, people of the Eternal Guard are seen paying their respects. In the upper row of this wall, you can see the image of people who are taking gifts to the palace. On the wall of the stairs facing south, the image of the representatives of different countries can be seen along with the gifts in hand.

Thatcher Palace

The word Thatcher or Techra means winter house. This palace was the private palace of Darius the Great and was built by his order and in this inscription, he wrote: “I, Darius, built Thatcher”. There are twelve columns in this palace. On the door of this palace, there is a picture of the king and his servants, one of whom carries a shawl and the other holds a canopy. The staircase wall shows the servants taking the animals and the covered containers to the party.

Palace Council

Based on the evidence, it can be said that the king held discussions and consultations with the elders in this palace, and also based on the designed roles, it shows that the king entered through one door and the other two gates outside. On the walls of this palace, the role of a human head can be seen, whose head is a symbol of thought.

Hakhish Palace

This palace is located at the highest point of the Persepolis complex and was the private palace of Khoshyar Shah. This palace was connected to the Queen’s Palace through two plates. Due to the hatred of the Athenians for the burning of Athens by Xerxes, they started the burning of Persepolis complex from this palace. According to the name of Xerxes Shah’s second wife, Hadish, this palace is called Hadish, which means tall.

Chehel Sotoun in Isfahan


Chehel sotoun Palace in Isfahan

Among all the palaces and mansions in Iran, Chehel sotoun Palace in Isfahan is the best example of Iranian art. Watching the porch of Chehel sotoun Palace and the reflection of its columns in the beautiful garden’s pool gives a pleasant feeling to any visitor.

In addition, visiting the green space of the garden and seeing the paintings and drawings and mirrors inside the palace will be pleasant for tourists.

There is also a museum in this garden, which will be interesting for tourists to see.

Chehel Sotoun Palace and its royal garden is one of the ancient sites of Isfahan. The construction of this attractive palace dates back to the Safavid era in 1588, but was completed in 1647. The decision to build this garden was made when Shah Abbas chose Isfahan as his capital. He decided to build a long street called (Chahar Bagh) and gardens in it. But today, except for Chehel Sotoun Garden and the Hasht Behesht Garden, none of these gardens remain.

Chehel Sotoun Palace Structure

Chehel Sotoun Palace is built on 67,000 square meters of land. The design of the palace is inspired by Chinese, Iranian and European architecture.

The palace consists of a main porch 38 meters long, 17 meters wide and 14 meters high, which is built facing east. The columns of this octagonal porch are made of sycamore and pine wood.

The main porch has twenty columns. These twenty columns are reflected in the large palace pool and a total of forty columns are visible.

 The pool in front of the mansion is 110 meters long and 16 meters wide. The jump of water in the pool between the hall and the four lions that are located in the four corners of the pool have created a special atmosphere in this palace. In Iranian architecture, building a pool in front of a mansion for the purpose of beautification was considered one of the styles.

The porch of Chehel Sotoun Palace consists of two parts; The first part is based on 18 tall wooden pillars. The four pillars in the middle are on four stone lions. In the past, water flowed from the mouths of these four taps. This water poured into the marble pool of the hall.

The second part, which is a little higher, forms the entrance of the hall. This part is called the Hall of Mirrors. This part is located on two columns and is mirrored all over.

Chehel Sotoun Palace Paintings

 The painting of the central hall of the palace was dedicated to foreign guests and personalities from other countries. This hall contains paintings that express the historical events of different periods.

Some of the paintings in the central hall were painted in the Qajar era. These paintings depict the hospitality of Shah Abbas I and II and Shah Tahmasb of the rulers of Turkestan and Homayoun Hindi. These paintings also depict the war of Shah Ismail I with the Uzbeks. The other two paintings show the Chaldoran War during the reign of Shah Ismail I and the Cornell War during the reign of Nader Shah Afshar. On either side of the central hall of Chehel Sotoun Palace are paintings of ambassadors and Europeans by two Dutch painters, Angel and Lucar.

Ashraf Hall is one of the most important parts of Chehel Sotoun mansion

Ashraf Hall or the main hall, with beautiful paintings of the Safavid period is very spectacular and amazing. There are inlaid windows in Ashraf Hall. These windows are in front of the pool in front of the building and the garden space. These windows are installed to allow light to enter the hall.

In addition to beautiful wall paintings, three domes are decorated with gold ornaments and amazing paintings.

Unfortunately, Chehel Sotoun Palace caught fire during the reign of Sultan Hussein Safavid, but was rebuilt. During the Qajar period, this amazing palace suffered serious damage, but after many years, it is still a magnificent monument in Isfahan.

Chehel Sotoun Palace Museum

In Chehel Sotoun, a hall is dedicated to the museum. This museum is a place for keeping historical objects of Safavid and Qajar periods.

Among the objects kept in this museum, the following can be mentioned: types of pottery and glass from the third to the eleventh centuries AH, white and blue porcelain ordered by Shah Abbas, old manuscripts, rugs with an altar design related to the 11th century AH And inlaid wooden doors belonging to the Safavid era

In terms of antiquity, this museum is the second oldest museum in Iran after Golestan Palace.

Best time to visit Chehel Sotoun Palace

Spring is the best time to visit Chehel Sotoun Palace in Isfahan; Because in addition to pleasant weather, the garden around it also has a special beauty. If you are planning to take a photo, morning is the best time. Also at night, Chehel Sotoun has its own beauty with lighting. Seeing Chehel Sotoun is spectacular both at night and during the day.


One of the best places that shows the art of Iranian architecture well is Chehel Sotoun Palace in Isfahan. Isfahan Chehel Sotoun Palace attracts the attention of every visitor.

So do not forget to visit Chehel Sotoun Palace in Isfahan during your travels.

Isfahan Atiq Jameh Mosque

Isfahan Atiq Jameh Mosque

The glory of Isfahan Atiq Jameh Mosque 

Isfahan Atiq Jameh Mosque is one of the oldest religious buildings in Iran. The current building of the mosque belongs to the Seljuk period. Repairs have been made to this mosque, which belongs to the Safavid period. But after the archeological excavations that were done on this building, belongings from the period of Albuyeh and the third century AH were discovered among them.

The construction of Isfahan Atiq Jameh Mosque dates in Isfahan attractions and history back to the first centuries AH and the time of the Abbasids. The most important development of the mosque took place during the Al-Buwayh and Safavid periods. Therefore, Isfahan Atiq Jameh Mosque represents Byzantine and classical art in the form of a traditional and Islamic building.

It is acknowledged that Isfahan Atiq Jameh Mosque was originally a fire temple. When the Arabs came to Iran, this fire temple became a mosque.


The architecture of Isfahan Atiq Jameh Mosque is a combination of different architectural styles of Iran and neighboring countries. The original design of the mosque had a Shabestan in the style of an Arab or Khorasani Mosque. In the fifth century AH, it became a four-aisled mosque.


Another feature of the mosque is the load-bearing skeleton of the dome, which is called Tarkine dome.  Tarkine dome has made it possible to create hundreds of domes; This method was performed for the first time in Isfahan Atiq Jameh Mosque.

Atiq Jameh Mosque can be considered as one of the mosques that includes several altars.

There is a small Shabestan in the north of the mosque Iwan. The altar of this Shabestan is the most beautiful molding of the mosque. This altar displays Iranian art in the best way.

Safavi Shabestan

One of the most beautiful Shabestans of the Old Mosque of Isfahan is the Safavi Shabestan. Excavations revealed that Shabestan was built during the Timurid period.

Another beauty of this Shabestan is its altar. This altar is made of marble. Beautiful poems are also written on the altar.


Darvish Iwan

Darvish Iwan was built in the sixth century. This Iwan has a stucco inscription belonging to the period of King Solomon Safavid. One of the most beautiful parts of the mosque is forty eastern columns of Darvish Iwan, which has numerous arches with unique brick motifs.

Saheb Iwan

 Saheb Iwan is another part of the Atiq Mosque in Isfahan, which was built during the Seljuk period. The Iwan was decorated during the Safavid eras. The Iwan contains inscriptions from the reigns of various Safavid kings.

 Omar Iwan

The date 768 AH is engraved on the historical inscription of Omar Iwan. It is dated to the reign of Sultan Mahmud Al-Muzaffar. The brick columns of this Iwan with simple decorations and religious expressions written with decorative and historical lines on the ceiling have created a special beauty.

 Ostad Iwan

Ostad Iwan is built in the west of the mosque. The construction of this Iwan dates back to the Seljuk period, but special decorations were applied on it during the Safavid period. Beautiful tiles and inscriptions in the Sols line and Nasta’liq have given a beautiful effect to this Iwan. These inscriptions and lines date back to the reign of Shah Sultan Hussein in 1112 AH.

Shagerd Iwan

Shagerd Iwan, like the other Iwans of the mosque, was built during the Seljuk period. Simultaneously with the rule of the Ilkhans and Safavids (eighth and eleventh centuries AH), a decoration was added to this Iwan. the Iwan has amazing arched brick that show the art of Iranian-Islamic architecture well. In this Iwan, there is a special and unique marble with inscriptions around it.


There are four stone-troughs (Sangab) in this mosque.

stone-trough (Sangab) Darvish Iwan: This stone-trough (Sangab) is made of Persian stone. On the body of this stone-trough (Sangab) is a dome on which is written in Persian and Arabic languages in Sols line. Half of the stone-trough (Sangab) has been destroyed by a fracture.

stone-trough (Sangab) Saheb Iwan: This stone-trough (Sangab) is simple. This stone-trough (Sangab) is located in the middle of a pool of rectangular stone and five gorges have been designed on its edge. The outer surface of the stone-trough (Sangab) can be seen at the top, including the inscription in the Sols line and the small congressional design, and at the lower part of the stone-trough (Sangab), the large congressional design.


  There is a sundial on the north Iwan of the mosque, which was used to determine the time of the call to prayer.


The large library of Nizam al-Molk is also located in Atiq Jameh Mosque. The library was damaged during the war bombardment; But in the renovations, the library was restored to its original style.

The magnificent Isfahan Atiq Jameh Mosque is a combination of several beautiful architectures from different historical periods. This combination makes the architecture of the mosque unique.

Atiq Jameh Mosque of Isfahan is located in the old part of the city and at the end of the Grand Bazaar and this monuments there is in Iran UNESCO Heritage world list.

Be sure to visit this magnificent mosque during your visit to Isfahan.

The best time to visit this beautiful mosque, to enjoy its beautiful architecture, is in the morning.

Oak travel agency arrange every services in Iran for you  so Join us to experience the best trip of your life.


Iran highlighted tour | Vank Cathedral

Vank Cathedral in Isfahan

Vank cathedral is the most beautiful church in Isfahan

Vank Cathedral: Savior Cathedral or Church of Saintly Sisters, is known as Vank Church. This church is also known as “Amenaperkich” in the world. This church is an Armenian church located in the Jolfa street in the center of Isfahan. The name “Vanak” is derived from the Armenian word “monastery”. Due to its outstanding interior, Vank Cathedral is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Isfahan.

Vank Cathedral was built during the rule of Shah Abbas. Vank Church dates back to 1606 AD.

Vank Cathedral is built on an area of 8700 square meters. In the architecture of most churches, stone was used to build the building, but in Vank Church, brick was used instead of stone facade. Among the brick facade, tiles with the image of winged angels can be seen. In the main entrance, there is a large wooden door that has given a special glory to the church.

There is a three-story tower at the entrance to Vank Church. The church bell is located in this tower. On the second floor, there is a large clock tower that weighs 300 kg. This watch was donated by Mardiros Gork Hordanian in 1931. The clocks of the tower sound at the same time as the ringing of the bells.

The bell tower, also known today as the Clock Tower, was built 38 years after the main church building. Below the bell tower are two tombs belonging to an Armenian soldier and a bishop.

To the right of the bell tower is a blue inscription covered with cross stones.

These stones, which are called Khach Klim in Armenian, have been brought to Vank Church from other Jolfa churches.

Vank Cathedral has two domes. They built a small dome above the hall where the people gathered and a large dome above the church altar.

The architectural style of the Great Dome is quite similar to the architecture of the dome of mosques. This is while the dome of the churches is basically conical. According to the year of construction of this church (Safavid period), the architectural style of the dome is modeled on the architecture of mosques at that time.

The roof and walls of the church are covered with beautiful paintings. These paintings attract the attention of every visitor.

The paintings on the dome of Vank Church are some of its interesting attractions. Interesting paintings of the dome include the following: Images of the creation of Adam and Eve, the story of Adam eating the forbidden fruit, and the story of Abel and Cain

The paintings of the main building are one of the most beautiful architectural parts of this church. The interior walls of the church hall are plastered. These walls are covered with magnificent paintings.

The architecture of the Vank cathedral is known and prominent in the world for its gilding and painting.

Vank church paintings are generally divided into two categories:

Paintings on canvas and cloth that have been used in the altar and other places

Painted murals and pieces of stone

One of the best-known paintings of Vank church depicts seven floors of Sky and heaven and hell. This is one of the most interesting works painted in this church.

Among the most interesting parts of Vank church are the statues installed on the church grounds. These statues represent Armenian celebrities who attract the attention of every visitor.

Sections of Vank church:

Vank church has been completed over time. Many parts have been added to the church over the years. The church has sections such as the museum, library, Bell House, clock tower and Printing press.


Many tourists visit the Vank church museum every year. This museum is of great importance in Iran and the world.

The most famous work in this museum belongs to an 18-year-old girl. On this hairpin, a sentence of the Torah is written with diamonds. Wahram hakoupian is an Armenian artist who created this art work in 1974. In 1975, the hair was donated to the Vanek Museum.


The church library is located next to the museum. Deir Amna perkic library is one of the most important cultural sites for Armenians in Isfahan. Some of the historical documents and books stored in this library date back more than 400 years. These documents and books are kept in the archive section and there is no access to these documents for the public.

printing press

Iran’s first printing press was established in Vank church. The first printed book in Iran was also published in this church. But there was a lot of opposition to the activity of the Vank church printing press. These objections eventually led to the burning and destruction of the printing press. Currently, the Vank church printing machine and samples of printed books are kept in the Vank Museum.

This church is one of the places in Isfahan that no tourist should miss. Visiting the museum, printing house and library are also places that you will enjoy visiting. Visiting this church and seeing its beautiful paintings attracts the attention of visitors.

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