tchogha zanbil

Tchogha Zanbil

Magnificent ancient monument of Tchogha Zanbil

Tchogha Zanbil is a remnant city of the Elamite period with an area of 100 hectares. This city is located 35 km southeast of the ancient city of Susa in Khuzestan province. Tchogha Zanbil was built near the Dez River in the early 13th century BC by order of one of the most powerful Elamite kings (Ontash Napirisha). In 640 BC, it was destroyed by Assyrian king Bani Paul at the battle of Humban Haltash.

According to the inscriptions and brick inscriptions obtained from this area, the original name of this place in Elamite language is “Al Untash”.

The city and its temples were built to worship the two great gods, Napirsha and Inshushink (patrons of the city of Susa). Archaeological research has shown that it was used as a place of pilgrimage until 1000 BC.

But due to the mud bricks that were stacked for construction and the incomplete temples, this complex was never completed.

Tchogha Zanbil Architecture

The main materials used in Tchogha Zanbil are clay and mud. Therefore, brick has been used extensively to protect the erosion of bricks.

The ziggurat facade uses thousands of bricks, glazed bricks, bitumen mortar and glass ornaments.

  Other decorations include the entrance gates of the building, which are glazed with sculptures in the shape of bulls made of pottery.

The Tchogha Zanbil Ziggurat was built on five floors, but now only two floors remain.

Some of the bricks used in Tchogha Zanbil are glazed and are considered to be the oldest tiles in the world.

The first examples of Iranian glassmaking from the second millennium BC have been obtained in Tchogha Zanbil. The glass wires found are mass-produced and of the same dimensions.

The city is made up of three fences and seven gates. There are many palaces, temples and structures between each fence.

The first fence buildings

This fence includes ziggurats and temples. There are 6 gates in this fence, which is the way for pilgrims to enter the temple grounds. The first fence is made of clay and is called Temnos.

Ziggurat

In ancient times, people believed that the gods lived in paradise and that they had to go to high places to worship the gods. So, they built ziggurats to get closer to the gods.

The ziggurats were in fact multi-story temples built with the goal of bringing humans closer to the gods. This religious building was built during the Babylonian and Assyrian periods in Mesopotamia. During the Elamite period, these buildings were also built in Iran.

The Tchogha Zanbil ziggurat was dedicated to two of the great Elamite gods, Inshushinak and Napirisha.

Temple of the Goddess Inshushinak

This temple is a gift to the goddess Inshushinak. The temple has 5 rooms.

  The entrance arch of the temple gate is known as the “luxurious (Mojallal)gate”. The luxurious (Mojallal) gate is made of wood and decorated with glass. The safest and best latches and hinges are found in the Inshushinak Temple.

Triple Shrines

Three shrines have been identified in which interesting objects have been discovered. Objects that the Assyrian soldiers did not want to loot. Items such as sculptures of boars, cows, turtles and birds made of glass paste.

The Great Gate

The Great Gate is the largest and widest gate of the fences around the Ziggurat. This gate was for the movement of the king and the courtiers.

Northeast Gate

This gate is the largest and most important gate and has four towers. Two towers are located outside and the other two towers are located inside the fence.

Buildings inside the second fence

The fence that surrounds the first fence and part of Tchogha Zanbil.

Hyschemic and rheumatic temples

21 inscribed bricks have been found in this temple. The names of these two ancient Elamite gods are engraved on the inscriptions.

Susa Gate

This passage is very narrow and few people passed through this place. The floor of this gate is paved with broken clay. The ground outside the gate is also paved with pebbles.

Third fence

The third fence of Tchogha Zanbil represented the city limits. The last fence includes the first and second fences and the complex of Tchogha Zanbil buildings. On the brick walls, gutters are made to direct water out of the fence to prevent water from penetrating under the wall and around the gutters.

Other buildings in Tchogha Zanbil

Palace of Tombs

Near the third fence, there is a complex called the royal court. In this complex, there are 5 underground tombs (Elamite kings and princes), which is known as the Palace of Tombs.

Nosco Shrine

This (T) shaped building is located in the King’s residence. This place was the private shrine of the king and the royal family.

Tchogha Zanbil refinery

The refinery is another special feature of this complex. This refinery is one of the oldest refineries in the world and is unique in its kind for that period.

The main source of water for this treatment plant was Karkheh River and it reached Tchogha Zanbil through a 45 km canal. It is only 3 km away from Dez river, but the temple water is supplied from Karkheh River. The main reason for the lack of water supply from the Dez River is the high distance of Tchogha Zanbil from the surface of the Dez River.

Tchogha Zanbil Ziggurat Observatory

This was a solar observatory or solar calendar to calculate the solar rotation and the calendar. This Tchogha Zanbil observatory has been used to extract the calendar and identify the early and middle days of each season.

The building blocks of the Tchogha Zanbil solar meters are octagonal in shape for the observatory.

Solar meters are designed so that the time of sunrise or sunset can be detected by looking at the shadows created from it. The beginning or middle of each season can also be identified by these clocks.

 

 

Tchogha Zanbil is one of the most impressive ruins of antiquity, not only in the Middle East but also in the world. This area attracts many tourists every year.

  In 1979, Chogha Zanbil became the first Iranian site to be inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.By joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel Agency, visit this unique historical monument and experience a pleasant travel experience.

 

 

 

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System | Iran travel Time

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System: Achaemenians have built amazing buildings in the history of their rule. Buildings that, in addition to their beauty and splendor, are famous for their precise engineering structure. One of the most beautiful and precise engineering architectures, whose construction lasted until the Sassanid era, is Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System.

History

Shushtar historical hydraulic systems have a very rich history and their construction dates back to the Achaemenid era. Considering the engineering science and tools of that time, this monument is a very strange phenomenon that has been registered in UNESCO.

 The city of Shushtar has a history of thousands of years and dates back to the Paleolithic era.One of the reasons for Shushtar’s constant prosperity throughout history is its proximity to the Karun River. The proximity of Shushtar to the temple of Chaghazanbil made this city very important among the Elamites. Therefore, the first Iranian civilizations were formed in Shushtar.

 The Achaemenid era was the peak of Iranian civilization, art and science. They built this industrial and water structure with very precise engineering. Shushtar historical hydraulic system was rebuilt many times during the Sassanid, Seljuk, Qajar and even Pahlavi eras. But unfortunately, a strong flood caused severe damage to this structure.

The purpose of the Achaemenians in building this hydraulic system was to make more use of running water. Over time, various parts were added to this clay hydraulic system and formed the largest water museum of ancient Iran.

Among the attractions of Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system, bridges, dams, mills, water guiding channels are all built with the most accurate mathematical and environmental calculations in running water to supply urban water and water needed by agricultural lands in the best way.

Architecture

Shushtar historical hydraulic system architecture is one of the wonders of history. The architecture and resistance of this building over the years is one of its unique features. Building such a great structure with simple tools required a very high level of knowledge at that time. In order to fully waterproof the structure, the architects created holes in the stone and mortar so that this structure would remain healthy for thousands of years.

One of the most important architectural goals of Shushtar’s historical hydraulic system was the diversion of Karun water to another direction. This work was done with complete precision and elegance, and the bottom of this stream was well waterproofing so that the stream bed would not be destroyed over time.

After that, the water was collected behind a high dam and passed through the holes created on the rock. Then the water was passed through the water mills and finally entered the streams and tunnels. At the end, the water flowed from the rocks into a small pond in the form of a beautiful waterfall to provide the agricultural and drinking needs of the villagers.

 Iranians attached great importance to the water distribution system and, of course, saving its consumption, and Shushtar’s  historical hydraulic system is a sign of this.

 

Shushtar historical hydraulic system has different parts. Each of these parts has played an important role in the overall performance of the structure.

1- Gargar Bridge-Dam

This bridge was built on the path of the Gargar River to block the water and create a level difference, to direct the water into the three channels. These canals direct part of the water to the mills, and in addition to starting the mill cycle, part of the water flows into the water ponds through waterfalls.

2- Mizan Dam

The beginning of the process of dividing water in Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system takes place from this Dam. This Dam is made of stone and Sarooj in a semi-circle shape and is located on the Karun River. The Mizan dam is responsible for dividing water between the Gargar and Shatit rivers. The dam is about 400 meters long and 5 meters high. The purpose of building this dam was to raise the water level for easier use of water resources in agriculture.

3-Kolah Ferangi tower

At the end of Mizan Band and on top of the hill, there is an octagonal brick tower with a height of 7 meters, which has a complete view of the band. According to the historical documents of this tower, it was the observation point of Caesar Rome or Shapur Sassani to monitor the workers in Mizan Band. Today, a large part of this damaged tower has been registered in the list of national monuments of Iran.

4- The hand-made river of Gregar

When the Mizan Dam divides the water of the Karun River, a part of this water flows into a river whose bed and path were designed and created by the architects of Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system. This 40 km route became known as the Gregar River. Today, there are many green palm trees around this river, which are called Bagh Khan.

5-Water mills

There are many water mills in Shushtar historical hydraulic system. These water mills have shown the government’s focus on the maximum use of natural energy. In this system, the power of water caused movement in the mill cycles. The rotation of the mill was a great help in preparing flour for the farmers. According to historical studies, there were 40 water mills in this area in the past, today only half of these mills remain.

6- 4000 year old staircase

These handmade stairs connected Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system to the residential area. Historians have estimated the age of the stairs to be a thousand years ago. There are stone inscriptions on the path of the stairs, which show that this beautiful clay path has a much longer history.

7-Dara Dam

  Different dynasties used Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system and a new part has been added to it in each period. Dara Dam, which is located on the Gargar River, is considered one of the most important dams in this region. This Dam dates back to the Achaemenid period and has a very high historical value.

8- Darion channel

The name of the Darion River is derived from the name of Darius the Great. The function of this channel is to transfer water from the north to the south of the city. The Mianab plain was irrigated through this channel.

 

The historical hydraulic system complex of Shushtar is full of tourist attractions. Visiting this historical complex will be a unique experience for every tourist.

This monument is known as one of the technical and engineering masterpieces of the world, which has been registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System have been registered in the world list of UNESCO and by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular system.

 

Isfahan villages

Tabriz Blue Mosque

The beauty of Tabriz Blue Mosque

Tabriz Blue Mosque: One of the most famous attractions of Tabriz is the Blue(kaboud) Mosque. This unique mosque is one of the 4 blue mosques in the world.

This wonderful mosque was built in the 9th century AH during the Qaraqoyunlu period by order of Jahan Shah.

This mosque is also known by other names such as Mozaffariyeh mansion and Jahanshah mosque.

During the tragic events that took place for the mosque, the mosque was severely destroyed and damaged, but parts of the mosque are still standing.

An earthquake occurred in 1780 AD as a result of which the domes of the mosque collapsed.

The Mozaffariyeh complex (Blue Mosque) before the damage and destruction included a school, khanghah (place of residence, education and gathering of Sufis), mosque and library. Only a small part of the mosque remains from this complex.

The blue mosque, full of colors and patterns, is also known as the turquoise of Islam due to its special color.

Architecture of Tabriz blue mosque

Most of the mosque is made of brick, although some of the rare stones have been used.

Tabriz Blue Mosque is built in the style of Iranian and Islamic architecture. Most of this mosque is made of brick and decorated with beautiful tiles. In the decoration of the mosque, Moaragh tiles (wood inlaid working), inscriptions with the Thuluth and Arabesque motifs and marble slabs have been used.

Azure and turquoise tiles with a combination of white and black tiles have created a special color contrast.

These attractive tiles have given a special effect to the atmosphere of Tabriz Blue Mosque.

The mosque consists of two domes in the southern part. The large dome belongs to the mosque and the small dome to the Jahanshah family tomb.

A special feature of the mosque is the Sassanid architecture, which is the result of dividing the weight of the dome by building several columns. No wooden skeletons or structures were built under the dome. Therefore, most of the domes were damaged during the earthquake. After that, no one was able to rebuild those domes.

The interesting and recurring architecture of the mosque is parallel columns and square Sahn(courtyard in Islamic architecture).

Around the largest Shabestan of the mosque, there are continuous porticos connected by vault.

Other attractions of Tabriz Blue Mosque include its abortion of gold and azure. This roof has given a beautiful effect to the mosque.

In the past, before the demolition of the building, there were mosques, schools, baths, khanghah and libraries in the large courtyard.

The tiles of the Mihrab (a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla) of the mosque, although destroyed today, are very significant. The Mihrab is tiled with beautiful tiles and an inscription with verses from the Quran.

In most parts of the mosque, calligraphy of the Thuluth and Nasta’liq can be seen.

Although many of the tiles at the entrance to the mosque have been destroyed over time, it is still considered the entrance of the identity card of this place. It can be seen on the remaining inscription on the name of Mozaffariyeh mansion.

There are inscriptions around the mosque on which the verses of the Qur’an and the story of the victories of the Qaraquyunlus are written.

This writing of the expeditions on the mosque and the construction of such a magnificent building shows the power and authority of the Jahanshah.

The inscription was covered in gold but was stolen during the earthquake and the destruction of the building.

In the Sardab (a house that is built underground to shelter in the heat and keep water and food there to stay cool) there are two tombs that are said to be the burial place of Jahanshah and his wife, but unfortunately, they are empty today.

After the catastrophic earthquake, this mosque was severely destroyed and most of its beautiful buildings were destroyed and there is no sign of them anymore. After many destructions, a great effort was made to rebuild this place by the most prominent Iranian architects. But Tabriz Abi Mosque never returned to its former glory and beauty.

Tabriz Blue Mosque is so attractive that even after many damages, it still attracts the attention of visitors.

Choose your tour or tailor-made (customize) your tour with Oak Travel Agency you see the beauty of this city and attractions.

Jameh Mosque of Tabriz - Tabriz jame mosque

Jameh Mosque of Tabriz

Jameh Mosque of Tabriz

Jameh Mosque of Tabriz: Tabriz is one of the most beautiful cities in Iran. There are different tourist attractions in this city. Some of these attractions are very historic and some are modern and attractive. These historical and modern attractions have turned into Tabriz a tourist city.

One of the most beautiful historical places in the city is Jameh Mosque of Tabriz.

History of Jameh Mosque of Tabriz

This historical mosque is also known by other names such as the Kabiri Mosque or the Friday Mosque.

Due to the 1193 AH earthquake in Tabriz and the destruction of the original building, there is no exact date since the construction of this mosque.

But it is recognizable that this mosque was built in the 5th and 6th centuries and is a special and complete example of Iranian-Islamic architecture.

The name of this mosque has been mentioned in various books such as Marzbannameh and even in one of these books it has been mentioned as the Kabiri Mosque of Tabriz.

Architectural features of Jameh Mosque of Tabriz

The Tabriz Grand Mosque belongs to the Ilkhanid and Seljuk eras. During this period, the mosques had two tall minarets, a small dome and stone columns in the Shabestan.

  During the rule of the Ilkhans and Seljuks, they avoided luxury and great details in the construction of mosques. In contrast to this style, Safavid mosques were built in great detail.

No tiles or carvings have been used in the construction and decoration of Jameh Mosque of Tabriz.

  The current Grand Mosque is a rectangular enclosure made of brick and plaster. This mosque has two entrance doors in its northern and southern parts.

The mosque has a very simple Mihrab and of course a spiral shape that is made of white marble. In the construction of this Mihrab, the architectural style of the Safavid period has been used. One of the prominent parts of the mosque is its columns, which can be seen in abundance inside the mosque. The columns are all large in diameter due to the use of large bricks in their construction.

The Grand Mosque has 5 arches, which were added to the mosque during the Qajar period.

The factor that makes the Jameh Mosque of Tabriz one of the most prominent buildings of Islamic-Iranian architectural style today is that this mosque, while maintaining its simplicity, is ultimately beautiful, and this is very attractive.

   There is an inscription above the arch of the Mihrab, which is written in Kufic script and belongs to the Ilkhanate period.

This mosque has undergone many changes from the beginning of its construction until today, and the result of these changes is a very historical and beautiful building.

In the past, Jameh Mosque of Tabriz had only one porch and during different periods and with its expansion, another porch was added to it.

 Architectural experts say about the architecture of this building that those who have laid the plan of the Jameh Mosque of Tabriz for the first time have followed the principles of construction of Firoozabad Palace in Fars province.

 One of the special features of the historical mosque of Tabriz is that it can be considered a complete representative of the architectural design of Iranian mosques.

In Jameh Mosque of Tabriz, like many other historical mosques in Iran, there are a number of historical inscriptions that were discovered on the western part of the central arch and above the door of the northern part of the mosque.

  One of the inscriptions is made of marble and a story of Shah Tahmasb Safavid’s dream is engraved on it.

The Grand Mosque is one of the most important buildings in Tabriz, around which many bazaars and caravanserais were built, and its historical importance has been increased.

Visiting this historical mosque and seeing the glory of this mosque will be interesting and spectacular for tourists.

Visit Other attractions in Tabriz with Oak Travel Agency Tour.

arg-e-Alishah | Travel to Iran |

Arg-e- Alishah

History of Arg-e- Alishah in Tabriz

Arg-e-Alishah: Throughout history, many structures have been built for certain purposes. Some of them are still standing, and others only have names left. Some structures have also been repositioned over time and some deformed.

Arg-e- Alishah in Tabriz is one of these buildings that due to the destruction of the building, its history and use is definitely not clear. That is why there are many contradictions about the Arg and the use of this building is not known.

There are many historical monuments in the city of Tabriz. Buildings that each belong to a specific historical period and depict the glory and architecture of that historical period.

One of the most famous of these buildings is Arg-e-Alishah. This Arg was built in the 8th century AH in the old square of Tabriz. The Arg dates back to the patriarchal period. What remains of this magnificent building today is the only south Iwan (porch) of the Arg, which is 33 meters high.

During the excavations, there are many narrations about the purpose of building Arg-e- Alishah. Some consider the reason for building the Arg to be the construction of a large mosque by order of Taj al-Din Alisha Gilani (one of the patrons of the patriarchal period). But some consider the construction of the tomb as the reason for building the Arg.

Arg-e- Alishah is the tallest brick building in Tabriz. The width of the Iwan(porch) is 30 meters and its walls are 10.5 meters wide.

A feature that makes this Arg unique is its huge vault, which is wider than Taq Kasra. Therefore, Arg-e- Alishah in Tabriz is one of the special buildings.

Construction history

To build Alisha Citadel in Tabriz, a skilled architect, a master (Falaki Tabrizi) was selected to build a magnificent building in Tabriz. A building that is larger than Taq Kasra and can be seen from all parts of Tabriz.

Due to the rush in the construction of this building, the original structure was not built strong. Part of the roof dome collapsed during construction.

There are many narrations about the completion of the construction of Arg-e-Alishah in Tabriz. Some sources say that after Alisha’s death, the construction of the citadel was left unfinished. It is said that Alishah’s body was also buried next to the Arg.

Destruction of Arg-e-Alishah

During the first Iran-Russia war, Arg-e-Alishah became one of the important defensive points due to its excellent location and high altitude.

Therefore, during the war, the Arg was used as an ammunition depot by order of Abbas Mirza (Crown Prince FatAli Shah).

In the second Iran-Russia war and after the constitutional period, people used this Arg to defend themselves against enemy forces.

In the book (New History) written by Jahangir Mirza Qajar, it is stated: “The Russians, who were dissatisfied with the defense of the people of Tabriz, stormed the Arg and destroyed it. But this did not satisfy them either. Due to the negligence of Russian forces, part of the Arg caught fire while moving ammunition.”

During the Russian invasion, holes were made for shooting and placing the cannon on the walls of the Arg, changing the shape of the building.

Other reasons for the destruction of Arg-e-Alishah in Tabriz, we can mention the numerous earthquakes that have occurred in this city. The earthquake has caused a lot of damage to the Arg and has caused cracks in its walls.

Architecture of Arg-e-Alishah

  Arg-e-Alishah in Tabriz is a brick structure. This building is built in the style of Azeri architecture.

Durable materials such as lime, mortar and brick have been used in the construction of the Arg.

  Many wooden boards (700 years old) have been used in the construction of the Arg. The reason for using wood was to reduce the weight of the building for more flexibility against earthquakes.

Only three high walls of the old Arg building remain, which is in the shape of Iwan . According to experts, this section was used as a Shabestan.

One of the interesting things about building walls is that they continue up to 7 meters inside the ground.

After the end of the occupation of Tabriz and at the end of the Qajar rule, new structures were built in and around the Arg-e-Alishah.

Buildings such as Nejat School (the first modern school in Iran), the Kolah Farangi Mansion and the Lion and Sun Theater

Unfortunately, these buildings were destroyed during different periods.

Arg-e-Alishah in Tabriz is still standing after all these unfortunate events. This magnificent citadel is a sign of the greatness of its time.

Arg-e-Alishah still has its attraction and attracts many tourists every year. so You can book your Iran tour with Oak travel gency to visit this and other Iran monuments.

Naghsh-e jahan square in isfahan | passage on Iran history tour

Naghsh-e Jahan Square

The most special place in the world, Naghsh-e Jahan Square

Naghsh-e Jahan Square: Everyone has heard the description of Isfahan’s historical monuments. Historic places whose splendor attracts the attention of every tourist. The most special square in the world, Naghsh-e Jahan square is one of the most famous of these places. Most of Isfahan’s historical monuments date back to the Safavid era. An era that reflects the economic prosperity of that era. After many years and many unfortunate events that have happened to these places, it still attracts the attention of tourists. Naghsh-e Jahan square is among the places that every person should visit at least once. So, join us to get more acquainted with the collection of the role of the world of buildings around it.

Naghsh-e Jahan Square

Before Safavid times, there was a beautiful garden called “Naghsh-e Jahan square” in Isfahan. The name of this garden is taken from a city that is called Nakhchivan today.

During the Safavid period, after the transfer of the capital from Qazvin to Isfahan, a lot of economic prosperity was created. Therefore, many buildings were ordered to be built.

From the field that was called “New Square” at this time.

 The old mansion in Naghsh-e Jahan Garden was demolished at the same time as the square was built. Its materials were used in the construction of the square. For this reason, the new square was called Naghsh-e Jahan Square.

By the order of Shah Abbas Safavid, the original building of this square was built on the banks of the Zayandehrood River in 1011 AH. Over time, by 1025, its construction and other buildings around the world were completed.

This square was built by famous architects such as Sheikh Baha’i, Master Ali Akbar and Mohammad Reza Isfahani.

The length of Naghsh-e Jahan Square is more than 500 meters and its width is 160 meters. Around the square, 200 rooms are located on two floors.

At the same time, by order of Henry IV in 1612, the Doge Square in Paris was built with a square design, each side of which was not more than 140 square meters.

  This square is wider than Moscow Red Square, which was one of the most famous squares in the world.

  Even the role of the world has a superior historical perspective compared to Concorde Square in Paris. The role of the world square is the second largest square in the world after Tiananmen Square in Beijing.

There are four amazing monuments in different parts of the square. During different periods, arches were built around the square to protect the building. But over time, the arches have become modern cells.

 Also, this square is very similar to Shah Qazvin Square, Amir Chakhmaq Square in Yazd and Saheb Abad Square in Qazvin.

Simultaneously with the reign of the last Safavid king (Sultan Hussein), Naghsh-e Jahan square lost its glory and grandeur.

All the atmospheres and trees around the square dried up, and this destroyed the prosperity of the square. The process of destruction intensified during the Ashraf Afghan invasion of Isfahan.

Due to the change of capital from Isfahan, neglect of places and their destruction continued until the Qajar period.

Many parts of the mansion were destroyed due to the negligence of the Qajar kings.

During the reign of the first Pahlavi, Reza Khan began to rebuild historic buildings and cells around Naghsh-e Jahan square, and economic prosperity returned to the Naghsh-e Jahan market.

According to the travelogue, Naghsh-e Jahan Square has been the site of countless ceremonies and rituals. These include polo, fireworks, military parades and patriotic celebrations.

Naghsh-e Jahan Square has been registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Aali Qapo Palace

By order of Shah Abbas I, this building was built after the transfer of the capital from Qazvin to Isfahan, between 973 and 977 AD. In the Safavid period, the Aali Qapo mansion in Isfahan was known as the “Dolat khane Palace ” and the “Dolat khane Mobarake Naghsh-e Jahan square”.

This palace was built and completed in 5phase between 70 and 100 years.

In the first phase of construction, this palace was only the entrance to other royal palaces.

 In the second phase, due to the expansion of the capital and the increase in population, the need to expand the building was felt. For this reason, the third, fourth and half floors of the fifth floor were added.

In the third phase, the palace building was completed with the addition of the top floor (known as the music hall).

 In the fourth phase, a porch was added to Naghsh-e Jahan Square to increase the length of the palace.

And in the fifth phase, 18 columns were added to the porch. The construction of royal stairs and the construction and completion of the building’s water supply system to transfer water to the floors, especially the copper pool of the porch, were other constructions of this phase.

Aali Qapu Palace has amazing architecture. You will see a different number of floors if you look at it from any side. The palace has five floors from the back view, three floors from the side and two floors from the side of Naghsh-e Jahan square.

From the top of Aali Qapu mansion, all the views of Isfahan can be seen. Aali Qapu height is 48 Meters.

Miniatures and spectacular stucco of Aali Qapu Palace were made by Reza Abbasi, a famous artist of the Safavid period. Each floor and each hall in Aali Qapu Palace have its own design.

This unique architecture and palace inscriptions will attract the attention of any viewer.

Audio Hall (Aali Qapu)

  The audio hall is one of the sixth floors halls. The audio hall is completely plastered. This hall has an area of 63 square meters and has the shape of Chalipa (Persian cross). One of the features of this hall is the presence of arches that have created an acoustic environment. This feature allows full sounds to reach the entire hall.

Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque

Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is one of the historical mosques with masterpiece architecture of the Safavid era of Isfahan. This mosque was built between 1602 and 1619 AD by order of Shah Abbas I. The tiles of this mosque have been done by Professor Mohammad Reza Isfahani.

The main reason for building the mosque is to honor one of the religious figures named Sheikh Lotfollah Misi. He is one of the prominent scholars of the Safavid era.

Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque was built on the ruins of a mosque that used to be in this place.

Only Shah Abbas and the royal family were allowed to enter the mosque. The general public could not enter the mosque and worship.

The architectural style of Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is similar to other Isfahani structures. But this mosque has some major differences from other mosques built across the country. Lack of minaret and Shabestan is one of the differences of this mosque. On the other hand, the entrance of the mosque has several steps.

One of the main reasons why this mosque lacks Shabestan and entrance courtyard is to create a symmetry with Naghsh-e Jahan Square and to place the Aali qapu mansion in front of the mosque.

For this reason, a courtyard facing the qibla in front of the mosque has not been built.

Another difference of this mosque is that it does not face the qibla. As a result, the architects were forced to rotate 45 degrees in order to position the mosque in the direction of the qibla.

But the design and construction of the mosque has been done with such elegance that no angle or even skew in the building and exterior is known.

The dome of Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is lower than the dome of other mosques.

The dome of Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is built on 8 gabled arches. At the top of the dome, 16 lattice windows are installed that allow daylight into the courtyard. The windows are made at a distance of 170 cm from each other. In addition to passing light, they are also responsible for air conditioning.

Islamic motifs on the windows caused the light to enter the mosque with astonishing refraction.

The outer part of the dome has colorful tiles and delicate designs that come in different colors at different times of the day and according to the angle of the sun.

For example, the dome is pink in the light of dawn, pink, cream in the direct light of noon, and brick in the setting sun.

The exterior of the dome is decorated with mosaic tiles in pea background color. At the bottom of the dome, there are inscriptions in the third line with azure background color.

The seven-colored tiles of the mosque, in which the predominant color is blue and green, have turned the interior of the mosque and the Shabestan into a special space.

The Imam Mosque

Isfahan Imam Mosque is one of the most important buildings of the Safavid era. This mosque was formerly known as the Shah Mosque, the New Soltani Mosque and the Abbasid Mosque.

Imam Mosque is the most important mosque in the Safavid period in terms of the grandeur of the building and the abundance of decorations in the city of Isfahan.

The construction of the mosque began by the order of Shah Abbas I in 1020 AH to beautify the square.

This mosque represents a unique example of Iranian tile and carving art in the 11th century. Recorded dates in the mosque show that the decoration of the mosque was completed during the reign of Shah Abbas I.

The inscription on the entrance of the mosque in the Sols writing shows that Shah Abbas built this mosque from his property. He has given the reward of this work to his grandfather Shah Tahmasb.

Isfahan Imam Mosque is built with 18 million pieces of bricks and 474 thousand tiles. Marble can also be seen in abundance in mosques;

The main Shah Mosque is covered with silver and gold. On this door, poems in Nasta’liq script can be seen.

Large pieces of monolithic marble and precious Sangab have been used in the mosque. This is one of the valuable features of Imam Mosque.

The new Haftrang method has been used in the tiles of the mosque.

Isfahan Imam Mosque has seven Sangab. These Sangabs are:

Entrance Sangab made of Jasper

West Chehelsotun Sangab made of Jasper

Eastern Chehelsotun Sangab made of lime

Western dome Sangab made of marble

Eastern dome Sangab made of marble

Qaisaria Gate

The historical monument of Qaisaria Gate is located in the north of Naghsh-e Jahan Square and in front of Imam Mosque. This building was built by Master Ali Akbar Isfahani during the reign of Shah Abbas I.

 The reason for choosing this name is that the entrance of this market was built like one of the buildings of Caesarea in Asia Minor (Turkey). This door is decorated with porcelain bricks and beautiful paintings.

Qaisaria Gate was the most important entrance gate of Isfahan.

Today, there is not much left of the beautiful paintings on the porch. But the gate of Caesarea is reminiscent of the glory of Isfahan in the Safavid era.

 Most tourists have spoken in their travelogues about the glory of this Caesarea gate.

This article introduced you to a small part of the glory of Naghsh-e Jahan square. Naghsh-e Jahan square is one of the first places to visit on a trip to Isfahan. Seeing this place at night, due to the beautiful lighting, is particularly attractive. But you should not miss seeing this amazing place during the day. The best time to see the charms of this mosque is in the morning. Sunlight gives a special effect to these mosques.

We hope that after getting acquainted with the Isfahan’s historical monuments specially Naghsh-e Jahan square, you will experience a good trip to this city with Oak Travel agency and visit more historical and cultural attractions in Iransquare

shiraz |

Persepolis

Persepolis

The glory and authority of Persepolis is reminiscent of the Achaemenid Empire

Persepolis: An ancient complex that is magnificent and ceremonial. This complex was built as the new capital of the Achaemenids in the land of the Persians. During the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held celebrations of two thousand five hundred years of the Persian Empire in the Persepolis complex. After the Islamic Revolution of Iran, the Persepolis complex was considered a relic of kings. But today, Persepolis can be considered the most lovable structure in Iran and among Iranians, as well as a symbol of the glory of the past.

After the Iranian Revolution of 1978, some extremists tried to destroy Persepolis by attacking Persepolis, but failed due to the opposition and resistance of local officials and people.

The construction of Persepolis complex in shiraz

The founder of this city was Darius the Great, but in later times, the sons of Darius the Great added buildings to this complex and expanded it. All the information that is available from the Achaemenid period is due to the tablets and inscriptions of this collection. After the arrival of Islam in Iran, this complex was called the collection of a thousand pillars or forty minarets. The oldest constructions of Persepolis date back to 518 BC. The construction of Persepolis complex in Shiraz has started on the western slope of Rahma or Mitra or Mehr mountains.

The Persepolis complex in shiraz was burnt down by Alexander the Great in 330 BC, and all the buildings in the Persepolis complex in shiraz remained in ruins. Remains and half-ruined buildings include the main entrance of Persepolis, which is known as Apadana Palace, and consists of a central hall with 36 columns and three 12-column porches in the northern, southern and eastern parts, whose north and east porches Opposite yards are connected and connected. The height of the plateau at the site of Apadana Palace is 16 meters and the height of its columns is 18 meters.

The architects, artists and specialists who were involved in the construction of the Persepolis complex in shiraz were composed of different nations under the influence of Achaemenid kings such as Assyrians, Egyptians, Uratuians, Babylonians, Ludians, Ionians, Hindus, Scythians, etc.

Drawings designed on the walls

In the Persepolis petroglyphs, no one can be seen in a state of disgrace, and the representatives of the nations are designed as a member of the great world community with an independent and dependent personality. In the Persepolis petroglyphs, the distance of each nation is separated by a cypress tree, which is a sacred tree. The classification of the representatives of nations is based on their culture and history or their distance and proximity. It is the guide of nations, Persian and material or Elamite, which is designated hand in hand to guide other nations, and people of all nations were free to use their clothes, culture and language. No attempt can be made to show the superiority or pride of the Persians over other nations. Representatives of the nations have extended their arms to each other as a sign of friendship. Having a cane is a sign of high position and rank, a long-striped hat is a sign of military status and a simple long hat is a sign of greatness and a short cylindrical hat is a sign of a court official and a royal guard and servants. The lithographic design of the Persepolis donors, each of whom climbs a flight of stairs carrying a gift. This design has been used in Hadish Palace (private palace of Xerxes Shah) and Thatcher Palace (private palace of Darius the Great). One of the unique features of Achaemenid masonry and architecture is carved and engraved boulders that are placed in the walls of stairs-passages that lead to the halls and palaces of celebrations and ceremonies.

Stairs

The entrance to the platform is two steps facing each other in the northwestern part of the complex, which are like hands that bend their elbows and try to lift their enthusiasts off the ground and place them in their chests. These stairs have 111 wide and short stairs (10 cm high) on each side. This low height of the stairs for the comfort and grandeur of the guests (whose pictures are embossed on the walls of Persepolis in luxurious and long clothes) to be maintained when climbing.

Gates

At the top of the stairs is the entrance to Persepolis, the Great Gate or the Gate of Xerxes or the Gate of the Nations. The height of this building is 10 meters. This building had a main entrance and two exits, and today the remains of its gates are still standing. On the west and east gates, there is a design of winged men and a design of two stone cows with human heads. These gates are decorated at the top with six cuneiform inscriptions. After mentioning the name of Ahuramazda, these inscriptions briefly state that: “Everything that is beautiful is done at the request of Urmazd.”

Palaces

Apadana palace

Apadana Palace or Bar Palace is one of the oldest palaces in Persepolis. This palace, which was built by the order of Darius the Great, was used to hold Nowruz celebrations and to receive representatives of countries dependent on the presence of the king. Apadana Palace has two sets of stairs in the north and east. The eastern stairs of this palace consist of two stairs, one to the south and the other to the north. On the walls of the stairs facing north, there are roles of high-ranking military and Persian military commanders. In these paintings, there are lotus flowers in the hands of these commanders. In front of the paintings of these military commanders, people of the Eternal Guard are seen paying their respects. In the upper row of this wall, you can see the image of people who are taking gifts to the palace. On the wall of the stairs facing south, the image of the representatives of different countries can be seen along with the gifts in hand.

Thatcher Palace

The word Thatcher or Techra means winter house. This palace was the private palace of Darius the Great and was built by his order and in this inscription, he wrote: “I, Darius, built Thatcher”. There are twelve columns in this palace. On the door of this palace, there is a picture of the king and his servants, one of whom carries a shawl and the other holds a canopy. The staircase wall shows the servants taking the animals and the covered containers to the party.

Palace Council

Based on the evidence, it can be said that the king held discussions and consultations with the elders in this palace, and also based on the designed roles, it shows that the king entered through one door and the other two gates outside. On the walls of this palace, the role of a human head can be seen, whose head is a symbol of thought.

Hakhish Palace

This palace is located at the highest point of the Persepolis complex and was the private palace of Khoshyar Shah. This palace was connected to the Queen’s Palace through two plates. Due to the hatred of the Athenians for the burning of Athens by Xerxes, they started the burning of Persepolis complex from this palace. According to the name of Xerxes Shah’s second wife, Hadish, this palace is called Hadish, which means tall.

Tehran Golestan Palace | The Iran Highlighted Tour

Tehran Golestan Palace

Time travel in Golestan Palace Museum

Tehran Golestan palace: The big city of Tehran has been known as the capital of Greater Iran for the last 200 years, and for this reason it includes very large mansions and museums. Each of these local mansions has been used to perform the most important historical events that have taken place during different times. One of these mansions in Tehran is Golestan Palace. The construction of Tehran Golestan Palace was done during the Qajar dynasty and according to the fact that Mr. Mohammad Khan Qajar had chosen Tehran as his capital after the end of Zandieh rule, Tehran Golestan Palace was very important.

Why is Tehran Golestan Palace important?

Tehran Golestan Palace is an outstanding example of Qajar art and architecture and a source of inspiration for Iranian artists and architects to this day and also is in Iran UNESCO Heritage world list. It exemplifies the architectural and artistic achievements of the Qajar era and the co-existence of Persian and European architectural elements. This palace is located in an area that was originally called Tehran Citadel.

Golestan complex was established during the Safavid period and later dynasties were added to this building. Today, the complex consists of 17 palaces, museums and halls. Most of the changes made in this collection are related to the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar. Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar was the first king to travel to Western countries and tried to use the architecture he saw in other countries in Iranian architecture and He did the same during his 49 years in power. Tehran Golestan Palace has witnessed important moments in the history of Iran, including the Constitutional Revolution, the coronation of the first and second Pahlavi dynasties.

Salam hall (hello hall)

Salam Hall or Museum Hall is one of the rooms of Tehran Golestan Palace which is currently used as a museum. Salam Hall was a place for great royal ceremonies during the Pahlavi dynasty and ceremonies such as the coronation of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Shahbano Pahlavi were held in this hall. The construction of this hall began in 1253 AD and was completed two years later. The most important thing in this hall was the throne known as the Peacock Throne (Qajar) and the Kiani Crown, which are kept in the National Jewelry Museum and currently only their replicas are in this hall. This hall is the largest hall in Tehran Golestan Palace and overlooks Golestan Garden from the south with 9 windows.

Mirror Hall

Mirror Hall is one of the rooms of the palace which is located in the west of Golestan complex and above the entrance of the main building and in the west of Salam Hall. The south side of this hall is towards Golestan Garden and has three large arched sashes towards the garden and two doors and a large arched window towards the mansion. The reason for the dampness of this hall is that there are many works on its walls.

Marble bed porch

Marble bed porch is the first part of the complex that you see when you enter the garden. This porch is decorated with Iranian elements such as tiles, mirrors, bedding, lattice windows and paintings. The bed on the porch is made of famous yellow marble of Yazd province.

khalvate Khani (A place for the king to rest alone)

On the right side of this building, there is another porch called khalvate Khani (A place for the king to rest alone). There used to be a marble fountain on this porch. In one of the parts of the Golestan complex, you can easily see a combination of Iranian and European architecture, which is called the Sun Mansion. This mansion was built by order of Nasser al-Din Shah so that he could see a large area of his capital from above.

Windbreak mansion

The windbreak mansion on the south side of Golestan Garden was built by order of Fath Ali Shah Qajar. Muzaffar al-Din Shah Qajar was crowned in the windmill of Tehran Golestan Palace. The vestibules and facades above the rooms are among the parts of this building and the sash and columns have given a special beauty to this building. Painting, goldsmithing, mirror work, plastering, inlay work and marble have been used throughout the mansion and for this reason it is considered as one of the interesting and busy buildings of the royal citadel at that time. The royal hall of this building is a unique masterpiece and the following decorations have been used in it: no sash, two gypsum columns painted in the style of Zandieh, marble plinths painted, seven-color mosaic floor with a pattern of idols. And yellow, mirroring and painting walls and ceilings.

White Palace (Anthropological Museum)

It was at the end of Nasser al-Din Shah’s reign that the Ottoman king Sultan Abdul Hamid sent some expensive furniture to the Shah of Iran. Due to the lack of enough space in the palaces of the Golestan Shah complex, he ordered the construction of another palace for this furniture, which is white and is called white. In the windows used in this mansion, the patterns have been simplified and curved lines have been used and named after the solar node. The entrance door of the palace is made exactly according to the geometric patterns of Qajar architecture, which uses an eight-mesh knot in the semicircle.

Aj hall (Ivory Hall)

Aj (Ivory) Hall is one of the halls of the main mansion in Tehran Golestan Palace, which is located after the Mirror Hall and on the west side of the Diamond Hall. The date of construction of this hall is not known. There are two different views for naming this palace. First, there are two large ivory elephants in this mansion. Others believe that this palace was a place of reception and food and Aj in Turkish means hungry.

brilliant Hall

To the east of the Ivory Hall, there are several beautiful halls and rooms with many mirrors, chandeliers, heaters and stairs and numerous corridors. This part is known as the Diamond Hall and is located at a lower altitude than the Ivory Hall. There is not much information about this building and only in books and writings there is a brief name and reference to it, there is not even a picture of the Crystal Hall.

Diamond Hall

Diamond Mansion is one of the oldest mansions in Tehran Golestan Palace. The Diamond Mansion is located in the southern part of the Golestan Garden area, right after the windmill Mansion. The Diamond Mansion was built in the area of Tehran Golestan Palace during the reign of Fath Ali Shah Qajar.

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