Aghazadeh Historical House of Abarkooh in Yazd province

Aghazadeh Historical House of Abarkooh

Alive history in Aghazadeh Historical House of Abarkooh

Aghazadeh Historical House: Some houses are abandoned, but they are still alive, and if you listen to their walls, you can hear the sound of joy and mourning, laughter and tears, anger and fights, the words and sayings of its former inhabitants, and find out their secrets. Aghazadeh Historical House in Abarkooh is one of the beautiful and historical complexes in Abarkooh city in Yazd province. This house has the most beautiful two-floors windbreaks-Towers in Iran, and this is one of the reasons why this house is so important. In 1157 AH, “Haj Hossein Abarqavi”, one of the rich people of the city, ordered the construction of this beautiful building.

Architecture of Aghazadeh Historical House

Clay, mud and bricks were used in the construction of Aghazadeh Historical House, because the use of these materials in the construction of buildings reduced construction costs and also balanced the ambient temperature.

In Aghazadeh Historical House, wood was used to make doors and windows, and gypsum mortar was used in plastering, and the combination of all these elements has made the house more beautiful. This house has two floors.

On the northwest side of the house is the entrance, which ends in a courtyard through a corridor. The rooms and other parts of the house are built in three directions of the yard. Thus, in different seasons when the sunlight is different, due to the hot and cold weather and the amount of light, one of these parts of the house was used.

The front door of the house is located in the western part of this house and leads to a corner of the yard through a corridor. The south room is built in the style of a cruciform plan and also has a five-door room and cooling devices (khishkhan). The east and west rooms of the house are also in the form of three doors and five doors.

Windbreaks of Aghazadeh’s historical house in Abarkooh

Yazdi windbreaker are larger and taller than other windbreakers and usually their structure was considered four-way or eight-way. The windbreaks of Aghazadeh Historical House are built above the main hall and have two floors. This beautiful windbreak is 18 meters high, 18 square meters in area and has 19 air flow control valves.

Pergola mansion in Aghazade historical house

In Aghazadeh Historical House in Abarkooh, there is a small mansion with beautiful decorations called a pergola, which dates back to the Qajar period. The architectural style of this building is a combination of Iranian and European architecture of that time. The pergola of Aghazadeh Historical House is located on the roof of the main hall, right next to the windbreak, and also forms the roof of the five main doors.

The architectural structure of the pergola mansion is eight feathers. In each side there is a window with colored glass and it is designed in such a way that it transmits the lightest to the main hall.

Basement with handcrafted architecture

There is a 400-year-old underground house in this historic house that has been dug by hand.

Last words

The delay of the Aghazadeh Historical House goes back to the Qajar period. This historical complex is built in a large area of 820 square meters.

A place with authenticity that speaks from the heart of history. This house is one of the most famous houses in Yazd, which beautifully shows all the styles of authentic Iranian art and architecture related to hot and dry regions.

Windbreakers-Towers of Yazd

Windbreakers(Towers) of Yazd

Windbreakers-Towers of Yazd

Windbreakers-Towers of Yazd are one of the symbols of Iranian architecture that are currently being built on houses in some parts of the Middle East. Windbreakers-Towers of Yazd are tall mansions built to ventilate and cool a house on its roof. Windbreaks are also built on top of reservoirs and openings for ventilation.

These mansions are the basic type of cooling systems today that cool the air in homes. Cool air was transferred to the rooms as well as parts under the ground through these wind deflectors. It is not clear exactly where the first Windbreakers-Towers of Yazd was built, but this structure represents Iranian civilization.

Windbreakers-Towers of Yazd are made in different shapes in the central and southern cities of Iran, each of which is designed and implemented according to the desired height and wind direction. The first Windbreakers-Towers were seen in Yazd and Kerman.

The great Windbreakers-Towers of Kerman’s Grand Bazaar, the windbreak of Dolatabad-Yazd Garden, the left windbreak of Sirjan and the windbreaks of Bandar Abbas, Bandar Lengeh, Qeshm and Sistan are among the most spectacular windbreaks in Iran.

Windbreakers-Towers consist of parts:

Column:

The column is actually a part of the windshield body that is located between the windshield opening and the roof of the building. Columns are usually in the form of cubes, rectangular cubes or prisms.

Blades:

are brick and brick elements that divide the interior of the windshield, especially the windshield column, into several small channels.

Mouthpiece:

The mouthpiece or ventilator is the upper part of the windshield which is the passage of air flow.

Roof:

Includes the highest and final part of a wind deflector.

Wind deflectors come in several shapes based on their appearance:

Rectangular-square-hexagonal-octagonal-circular

Rectangular:

A large part of the facade surface is in the direction of the desired wind and is often used in areas where the desired wind direction from northeast to southwest in summer.

Square-hexagonal-octagonal:

Used for areas where the desired wind direction is varied.

Materials used in the construction of wind deflectors:

 Windbreaks have been specific to hot, dry, hot and humid areas. In hot, dry, hot and humid areas, the buildings are generally made of brick.

How Windbreakers-Towers work

When the wind blows, air enters the windshield column through the openings. The air pressure is reduced by a thin wall in the middle of the windshield column so that air does not escape from other openings.

For better performance of Windbreakers-Towers and in very hot areas, they used mats or thorn bushes that were placed right on the opening and water was poured on it. It got cooler and wetter as the air passed through the mouth

Wind deflectors have wooden valves that have been used in winter to close the wind inlet to the wind deflector.

General types of wind deflectors

One-way Windbreakers-Towers:

It is the simplest and most economical type of Windbreakers-Towers. In this type of windbreak, the desired wind has an entrance path from only one direction. Another appearance of this type of wind deflectors is their low height compared to other types.

Two-way windshield:

This windshield is known as a twin windshield due to its small size. This type of windshield is more accurate than one-way windshield wipers. And it is mostly used in reservoirs.

Three-way wind deflector:

Its structure is such that the larger direction of the wind deflector towards the wind was desirable and it had more openings for air entry. If the wind was blowing from the other side, there was a possibility of favorable air entering from the other two sides of the Windbreakers-Towers.

Four-way windshield:

The windshield is larger than other windshields and is also more complex, however it is the most beautiful type of windshield. Four-way wind deflectors are made from four directions due to the favorable wind. And over time, the figures have increased from four to six and eight, and even one has been seen in a circular shape.

Left wind deflector:

In this type of wind deflector, the outer cubic space has been changed and knee-shaped pipes have been used instead.

Two-story windshield:

To build these windshields, they usually first built a large four-way windshield with all the details; Then in the middle of it, another windbreak was built one or two meters or more in height from the first windbreak. The two wind deflectors were completely independent of each other, and if one was damaged, the work of the other would not be disrupted.

Iran has a rich and varied architectural history going back over 3,000 years, and the remains of Iranian architectural monuments can be found from Syria to India and China. Iranian architecture makes uses of a great variety of techniques such as stone carving, stucco and plasterwork, tile and brickwork, mirror and glasswork, and other ornamental elements. As in any architecture, geographical, religious, political, technological, and natural factors determine the quality and quantity of architecture.

As Iranian architecture has greatly influenced its neighboring countries, windmills can be found throughout the Middle East as well as North Africa and as far as India. Iran’s wind catchers stand as a reminder of how ancient civilizations have adapted to the region’s harsh desert environment. (Tower-

Lut desert

Lut Desert

Lut Desert

 

Lut desert is located in the southeast of Iran. The title of the most pristine spot in Iran has been given to Lut Desert. “Lut” in Balochi language means naked, thirsty and empty of everything.

  The major part of this great desert is sand.

  The time of formation of most deserts goes back to the third geological period, which were ancient lakes, and now the salt left over from their evaporation in the past prevents the growth of any plant in these areas. For this reason, geologists refer to the vast region of southeastern Iran as Lut Desert.

The vast area of Lut desert includes parts of the three vast provinces of Sistan and Baluchistan, South Khorasan and Kerman and extends from north to south. About 70% of this vast desert is in Kerman province and 30% is in South Khorasan and Sistan and Baluchistan provinces. Is located.

  The average length of Lut desert is estimated to be 900 km from north to south and 300 km from west to east. Due to the vastness of Lut desert, different regions with different climates and geographical features have been created in it.

Different parts of Lut desert

North Lut desert

In Northern Lut, there are many sedimentary and volcanic mountains and hills that have caused numerous earthquakes in this region.

The northernmost area of Lut desert, most of which is within the boundaries of South Khorasan and Birjand provinces, is considered a vast area whose height reaches 1000 meters in the northernmost parts and decreases to 500 meters as it moves towards the south.

Central lut

  Central Lut with 162 km length and 52 km width is known as “Chale Lut”. Central Lut is the most different part of the Lut desert, which is covered with huge masses of sand.There are scattered salt and chalk deserts in the central Lut.

South Lot

The southernmost region of Lut desert includes a major part of Kerman province and northern Sistan and Baluchistan. This region is more fertile than other parts in terms of vegetation and remains of ancient civilizations. It is divided into three parts in terms of geology:

 

Dasht-Sar

This area is known as Hamada and it is full of big and small stones that are artistically placed together. That’s why Dasht Sar is also called Sangfarsh desert. Wind erosion, severe temperature changes and erosion by running water are the reasons for the existence of such an area that has no vegetation.

Kaluts

 Kalut is a local name that refers to deep ditches and huge sand pyramids that have emerged as a result of soil erosion. Lut Desert Kalut are located in an area of ​​80 km wide and 145 km long and are considered a unique phenomenon in the world. The reason for the existence of these Kalut is the erosion by the Shore River and the 120-day winds of Sistan, which have created the most spectacular attraction of Lut.

Sand dunes

 an area of ​​50 thousand hectares is covered with sand dunes. The height of some of these crescent-shaped hills reaches 500 meters.

Gandom Beriyan

Gandom beriyan on the west of the Lut, there are hills covered with stones and black volcanic lava, which has an area of ​​480 square kilometers. This area is devoid of life in the summer season, the air temperature is more than 71 degrees Celsius, and no living thing survives. The black covering of the area causes the air temperature to rise sharply. Being at a low altitude (400 meters above sea level) has also been declared as one of the reasons for the extreme heat in this area.

temperature

According to reports, in 2005, the infrared radiometer of NASA’s “Ecoai” satellite measured the temperature of the central areas of Lut desert at 70.7 degrees Celsius.

Vegetation and fauna of Lut desert

 In the central parts of Lut desert, there is no special plant and animal life; But in some days of the year when the weather conditions are more favorable, temporary life is observed. In the spring season in Dasht Sar region, after limited seasonal rains, grass plants grow and dry in a short time.

There are many species of plants in the Rig yalan area, including Calligonum and Haloxylon. The density of this vegetation is much higher in East Lut. In 20 km of Shahdad area, you can also see Tamarisk bushes. One of the amazing and unique phenomena of Lut desert are the sand pots (Nabkha). With a height of 10 meters, these Nabkhas are the tallest in the world, and they are surrounded by Tamarisk bushes. The tallest Nabkha in the African Sahara is only three meters high.

Animals that are resistant to dehydration live in Lut desert. These animals include all kinds of snakes and carrion-eating birds, Jaculus, foxes and Sand cats, and all kinds of Agamas.

  About 70 species of birds with white color have also been seen in Lut desert. The reason for their white color is less heat absorption. The water needed by the bird is also provided by eating insects or dew that is formed due to the temperature difference between day and night.

 

Lut desert at night

The temperature difference between night and day in the Lut desert is noticeable due to the lack of vegetation. Plants have a significant impact on the weather. Since no photosynthesis occurs in the desert, the temperature drops a lot. The heat of the day in the desert is not absorbed due to the lack of insulation of the sand to maintain the temperature and store the heat; Therefore, desert nights are very cold. There is a significant difference between Lut and other desert regions of the world, which is the 120-day winds of Sistan during the summer season, which makes the air temperature not increase during the day and not decrease at night. In fact, these winds play the role of regulating the temperature of Lut desert.

Secrets of the Lut Desert

Lut desert is considered the most inaccessible desert in the world. Shahdad’s Kalut are full of secrets. Some people believe that this is the cursed city of the “Lot people” who were turned into stone, and this is the reason why it was named the desert of Lut.

 The Kaluts are full of unknowns and there are still parts where no human has been. However, in the marginal areas of Lut and Shahdad deserts, artifacts such as pottery and stone vessels from ancient civilizations dating back to 3000 BC have been discovered.

 Parts of the central desert are so burning that even bacteria cannot live, but in an area called “Zangi Ahmad”, where there is no trace of water or life, there are traces of a dilapidated wooden tower surrounded by broken pottery and colored glass. has been

 In recent years, a fossil of a dinosaur’s nail has been discovered in Lut desert, which needs a more detailed investigation.

desert lake

One of the wonders of the Lut desert is the presence of running water, especially in the marginal areas of the desert. The dried riverbeds indicate ancient and abundant rivers in the past. These rivers flow a little during seasonal rains.

 

Shahdad’s Kaluts

Shahdad Kaluts has an area of 11,000 square kilometers and is a mysterious, unknown and frightening area; Because there are few signs of life in this area. The ancient city of Shahdad is considered to be the center of government of “Arata” tribes in ancient Iran. This is the place of discovery of the oldest metal flag in the world, which is called “Shahdad Flag”.

Shahdad’s Kaluts date back to 20,000 years ago.

 

 

The night sky of the desert is a paradise for astronomers, photographers and researchers due to the pristine nature of Lut compared to other deserts of Iran.

Lut desert has so many unique and different attractions that it arouses the interest of tourists. In addition to watching the legendary Kaluts, various side entertainments are also provided for tourists such as off-roading, camel riding, walking and photography.

 

 

Lut desert have been registered in the world list of UNESCO and by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular desert.

Iranian Qanats

The glory of Iran’s Qanats

The Glory of Iran’s Qanats

History of Qanats in Iran

Iranian Qanats are considered as the most important factor in the development of civilization. The Iranians, with their innovations and the construction of Qanats, were able to use water safely and permanently throughout the year. They are themselves. Most areas of Iran are hot and dry. Life in these areas is impossible due to rain and insufficient water. But Iranians have been able to meet their water needs by digging Qanats.

Other hot and dry regions of the world, such as Australia, are uninhabited, but in Iran, due to the digging of Qanats and its unique water supply system, many cities and villages have been formed. Agriculture is also thriving in these hot and dry areas, and products such as fruits, vegetables and oilseeds are produced.

Researchers believe that the first Qanat was built in Iran. Then in the Achaemenid period, the secret of this water supply system by the Iranians went to Oman, Yemen and the Horn of Africa. The Muslims then took the secret to Spain.

In 2014, an old Qanat dating back to the third millennium BC was discovered near the Samira Dam (western Iran). This discovery showed that the Qanat system was widespread throughout Iran and was not used only in the desert. In 2003, after the Bam earthquake, an Qanat was discovered that is more than 2000 years old. This Qanat was excavated at the end of the Achaemenid period. It is said that the construction of Qanats has become popular in Iran since the Achaemenid period. Silas, the military commander of Darius I in the conquest of Egypt, built an Qanat in Egypt in 518 BC. Other Egyptian and Syrian Qanats were built during the Roman period.

The Greek Polybius describes an Qanat in the Persian desert in the second century BC. He says the Iranians mysteriously brought water from the depths of the earth to the surface. Vitruvius (80 BC) describes the Qanat in his book and reveals some technical secrets of this engineering phenomenon (Qanat).

In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a French-British tourist named Jean Chardin wrote: The Iranians were not only able to locate the exact location of the water, but also had the ability to transport water up to a distance of 60 km or sometimes more.

What is an Qanat?

Several thousand years ago, the ancient Iranians invented a new system called the Qanat. The Qanat is an underground passageway that carries water from the groundwater aquifer to lower lands. The Qanat consists of several wells. These wells, which are drilled vertically on a sloping surface, are connected to each other underground with a gentler slope. The first well is called the mother well. The mother well, which is usually submerged in an alluvial cone, is deeper than the groundwater level. The Qanat system is similar to an ant nest. Because it starts from the foot of the mountain and continues to the desert where the water is collected.

Qanat structure:

Corridor

A corridor or tunnel is an Qanat that is dug to access groundwater aquifers and transfer water to the ground. The dimensions of this corridor are almost horizontal in such a way as to allow workers to work and move easily. The height of the corridor is about 90 to 150 cm and its width is almost less than half of its height.

Qanat exit

the place where the Qanat corridor and the surface of the earth are integrated, is called Qanat output. This place is also called Mazhar (the place where the water appears).

Well shaft

Vertical wells that are dug to the Qanat corridor to connect the ground floor and the horizontal corridor of the Qanat is called. shafts have many uses. Their main use is to drain the soil resulting from digging the Qanat corridor. They also help ventilate and supply oxygen to workers. These wells help to send the required facilities and tools and discharge waste more easily. Hence the time and cost required for repairs and construction. These well shafts are drilled with a diameter between 80 to 100 cm.

Mother well

The farthest and deepest well shaft from the Qanat outlet that is dug in the upstream points is called mother well. The high flow of water in the mother well indicates the good flow of the Qanat. If the water level decreases and reaches below the mother well, water will no longer flow in the corridor of the Qanat and the Qanat will dry up. The depth of the mother well is different in different Qanats. The deepest mother well in Iran is excavated in Qasbeh Gonabad Qanat with about 300 meters.

Qanat-related structures

Payab

One of the structures related to the Qanat is Payab. Payab is a place of access to Qanat water. Payab is located in the courtyards of houses and mosques. The important thing about enduring is its very cool weather in summer. The bottoms have been used as refrigerators for food storage and in some cases for naps.

Windbreaker (Bad gir)

In houses, windbreaks are built on the Qanat. The use of wind deflectors is to circulate the air. The air that passes through the water of the Qanat cools the room. The combination of these two buildings (windbreak and running water of the Qanat) can be seen in most of the houses in the desert cities of Iran.

Investigation of Iranian Qanats

The deepest Qanat in Iran and the world

Qasbeh Qanat (Gonabad)

Qasbeh Qanat is an amazing phenomenon in Gonabad city. The Qasbeh Qanat dates back to 2500 to 2700 years ago. The length of this Qanat is 33. Its mother well is 350 meters deep, which is known as the deepest Qanat in the world. The Qanat water flow rate is about 150 liters per second and is almost constant throughout the year.

The longest Qanat in Iran

Zarch Qanat (Yazd)

The longest Qanat in Iran, “Zarch”, is in Yazd city. This Qanat is 100 km long. The number of wells is 2115. Its wells have been drilled at a depth of 23 meters. The Qanat is estimated to be up to three thousand years old in the Zoroastrian period. This Qanat is located next to the Yazd Grand Mosque.

Unfortunately, this Qanat has dried up due to the excessive digging of deep wells in the Qanat area, and only one of its branches is active.

The most special Qanat in the world

Our Qanat (Ardestan)

“Moon” Qanat is located in Ardestan city, Isfahan province. This Qanat is the only two-story Qanat in the world. The surprise of this Qanat is that the water of one of its floors does not penetrate the other. This 2,500-year-old Qanat has a water storage dam. Therefore, it is able to store agricultural water for four months. Experts consider the Qanat to be one of the masterpieces of engineering in ancient times in terms of observing the principles of drilling.

Qanat dating back to prehistoric Iran

Varzan Qanat

Varzan Qanat is about 3,000 years old. This Qanat is located in the city of Varzan, Isfahan. According to Japanese experts, this Qanat is one of the rarest Qanats in the world. This Qanat has a dam. The dam has a capacity of about 3,200 cubic meters of water for 120 days.

The first Qanat without a well

Ghias Abad Qanat

Ghias Abad Qanat is 350 to 400 meters long. The Qanat dates back to 1000 years ago. The use of this Qanat was to transfer water from one side of the mountain to the other, which is an agricultural field. Due to the special conditions of the Qanat, no wells have been dug in it.

The only conical Qanat in the world

Ibrahim Abad Qanat

Ibrahim Abad Arak Qanat is one of the masterpieces of Iranian art. This Qanat dates back to the sixth and seventh centuries AH. To dig an Qanat, a circle with a radius of one meter is dug and this circle becomes deeper. But the wonder of this Qanat is that it is conical in shape; The more the well goes down ،the wider and larger the well becomes.

The number of aqueducts in Iran is about 36,300. After many efforts, in 2016, 11 Iranian aqueducts were finally registered with UNESCO. Unique features, including the deepest, longest and strangest, are the reasons for registering these aqueducts. Visiting this attractive architecture and engineering will be fascinating for any viewer.

 By joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular Qanats.

Iran highlighted tour | Vank Cathedral

Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region

Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region

The Sasanian archaeological landscape of Fars includes the most valuable historical, architectural and urban planning related to the Sasanian era (224 to 658 AD), which are located in the historical areas of Firouzabad, Bishapur and Sarvestan.

The Sasanian archaeological landscape of Fars region with 8 significant architectural works, two historical cities, 8 reliefs, a castle and two palaces has been registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

According to archeological studies, Fars province plays an important role in the 400-year rule of the Sassanids and contains the most Monuments from the Sassanid period (about 3000 Monuments).

The most important Sasanian Monument in Fars province, which connects Sasanian and Islamic architecture, is the world’s first dome in Firozabad.

The Sasanian archaeological landscape of Fars region is a representation of the history of Iran during the Sasanian era.

 This collection of Monuments represents Iranian urban planning, art, architecture and lithography, which has its roots in the pre-Sasanian period, especially the Parthian period. But you can see the influence of Roman and even Greek art, especially in the ancient city of Bishapur. The method of building porches, the first domes on square buildings, using clay with sarooj is one of the architectural features of this historical period.

The art of Stone carving was used in Iran from the Elamite period and before that to show the power and glory of the kingdom, but this art reached its peak in the Sassanid period. The Sassanians used the art of stone carving to narrate important historical events.

 Many researchers believe that the first model of Iranian dome building was implemented in the Fire Temple of Gore and evolved during the Sassanid era. Dome construction reached its peak in the Islamic period.

Many of Monuments of this area are related to the period of Shahpur, one of the greatest kings in the history of Iran. One of the important historical events of Iran is the series of battles between Iran and Rome during the Shahpur period, the feedback of which can be found in Tang Chogan and the city of Bishapur. After a battle with the Romans, Shahpur captured the Roman legionaries and their emperor and used them to build the city of Bishapur.

Sasanians had deep religious beliefs. Their deep ties with Zoroastrians made the beliefs of this religion reach the peak of its power in the history of Iran during this period.

Ardashir Investiture Relief

The petroglyph of Ardeshir and Ahuramazda is one of the most beautiful and healthy motifs surviving from the Sasanian period. In this petroglyph, Ahuramazda and Ardeshir Babkan are standing in front of each other. Ahuramazda gives the king’s ring to Ardeshir from the altar of fire and elects him to be king. Behind Ardeshir’s head, the crown prince (Shapur) and two other princes are standing.

Ardeshir Babakan’s victory petroglyph

A petroglyph related to the Sasanian period, in which the scene of the victorious battle of Ardeshir Babakan with the last Parthian king is engraved. This petroglyph is 18 meters long and 4 meters high and is considered the largest surviving petroglyph in Iran. This Monument was carved on top of a rock in Firozabad and around the Firozabad River.

Shahpour Cave

Shapur Cave the other sassanid archaeological landscape is located 6 km from the historical city of Bishabur in “Sine Kouh” at an altitude of about 800 meters. The statue of Shapur with a height of 6 meters and a weight of 30 tons is located at its entrance. This masterpiece of ancient Iranian sculpture still remains after nearly 1700 years, but its two hands are broken. This statue was overturned due to an earthquake, which was repaired and returned to its original state by the Iranian army without considering the principles of archeology.

Aradashir khurreh (gur)

The abandoned city of gur is located three kilometers from Firozabad. gur (Aradashir khurreh) was built in the beginning of the 3rd century AD by the order of Ardeshir Babkan. This circular city is designed with a diameter of 2 kilometers. The city has four main gates and government buildings and residences of courtiers were located in it.The city of gur is considered the first circular city in Iran and the world.

Ardeshir Papakan Palace

Ardeshir Papakan Palace was built in the third century AD by Ardeshir Babakan, one of the founders of the Sassanid dynasty and sassanid archaeological landscape. Ardeshir Papakan Palace dates back to more than 1800 years ago.

Some experts believe that Ardeshir Papakan Palace was not used as a palace in the distant past and was originally a fire temple. Due to the location of the palace by the water, experts believe that the palace was originally a place to worship Anahita, the goddess of water.

  The base of the palace is 104 meters by 55 meters and tiles, plaster and half-hewn stones were used for its construction. The use of these materials has made the architecture inside the palace more beautiful. The building is so strong that it is still standing after 1800 years, and despite the damage caused during the era, it still has the dome of its porches.

 The construction of buildings with domes was not common in the Sassanid era, therefore Ardeshir Papakan Palace is the first building of the Sassanid sassanid archaeological landscape that used domes in its architecture and has 4 domes.

Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region have been registered in the world list of UNESCO and by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular Places. sassanid archaeological landscape

yazd | Amir chakhmaq mosque

Amir chakhmaq mosque

 

Amir chakhmaq mosque

Amir Chakhmaq Mosque is one of the most beautiful mosques in Iran, which was built by order of an Iranian woman. This mosque is located in Amir Chakhmaq complex. Amir Chakhmaq Mosque is known as one of the most important mosques in Yazd city(all thing about Yazd) due to its beautiful architecture and exterior and interior design, and it has been named the New Grand Mosque of Yazd.

Who was Amir Chakhmaq?

According to the available history (Amir Jalaluddin Shami) known as Amir Chakhmaq was one of the commanders of Shahrokh Teymouri. He was elected by Shahrokh Teymouri as the ruler of Yazd.

The most important reason for Amir Chakhmaq’s fame is his admirable actions, which he took with his wife to develop Yazd. “Fatemeh Khatoon” or “Seti Fatemeh” was the wife of Amir Chakhmaq who played an important role in the construction of the historical complex of Amir Chakhmaq in Yazd.

Amir Chakhmaq Mosque is the first building that the couple built. The construction of this mosque started before Amir Chakhmaq came to power. The construction of this mosque and its decorations took 20 years. As it was said, this mosque is located in Amir Chakhmaq complex. This complex includes a large square where the mosque – Tekiyeh – Ab Anbar is located.

Amir Chakhmaq Mosque has two doors, one of which faces the square and the other opens into the surrounding alleys. There is an inscription in this mosque on which the year of the end of the construction of the mosque is written.

Architecture of Amir Chakhmaq Mosque

The building of this mosque has only one porch. But at first glance, it may be seen as a four-porch building. This mosque is built with a plate and a dome. The interesting point in the architecture of this building is that this mosque has no minaret.

Historians have two different views on the lack of a minaret in this mosque

Some historians believe that the first reason was that in the past they did not build minarets for mosques built by a woman. Other historians consider the second reason to be the difference between Shiite and Sunni mosques.

It is said that this mosque was built in order to create unity among Muslims without a minaret.

Mosque entrance doors

One of the doors of the mosque opens towards the square. There is an inscription on the entrance of this part. A corridor connects the entrance to the courtyard of the mosque. In this corridor, windows with delicate grids of mosaic tiles are installed. The high entrance of the mosque on the east side is one of the most beautiful parts of this building.

Numerous religious expressions are executed in Kufic script with blue and green tiles on a brick background.

Dome of Amir Chakhmaq Mosque

The dome of the mosque is one of the types of curved and cracked domes. The exterior of the dome is decorated with turquoise tiles. On the base of the dome is an inscription in Kufic script with green and blue tiles.

The nave of Amir Chakhmaq Mosque

Amir Chakhmaq Mosque in Yazd has a summer nave with a very beautiful altar. There is a windbreak on top of this altar. The altar of Amir Chakhmaq Mosque is one of the most beautiful altars of historical mosques in Iran. There is a beautiful marble in the center of this altar.

This altar has a very delicate and artistic work of Mogharnas, which is executed with mosaic tiles in azure, white and gold colors. There are arches on either side of the nave that connect to the back aisles.

On the high porch of the nave, there are Islamic motifs with green and brown tiles on a blue background. The winter naves of the mosque are located on both sides of the entrance corridor of the mosque. It seems that the reflection of light on marble is considered as the source of light in this part of the mosque.

tchogha zanbil

Tchogha Zanbil

Magnificent ancient monument of Tchogha Zanbil

Tchogha Zanbil is a remnant city of the Elamite period with an area of 100 hectares. This city is located 35 km southeast of the ancient city of Susa in Khuzestan province. Tchogha Zanbil was built near the Dez River in the early 13th century BC by order of one of the most powerful Elamite kings (Ontash Napirisha). In 640 BC, it was destroyed by Assyrian king Bani Paul at the battle of Humban Haltash.

According to the inscriptions and brick inscriptions obtained from this area, the original name of this place in Elamite language is “Al Untash”.

The city and its temples were built to worship the two great gods, Napirsha and Inshushink (patrons of the city of Susa). Archaeological research has shown that it was used as a place of pilgrimage until 1000 BC.

But due to the mud bricks that were stacked for construction and the incomplete temples, this complex was never completed.

Tchogha Zanbil Architecture

The main materials used in Tchogha Zanbil are clay and mud. Therefore, brick has been used extensively to protect the erosion of bricks.

The ziggurat facade uses thousands of bricks, glazed bricks, bitumen mortar and glass ornaments.

  Other decorations include the entrance gates of the building, which are glazed with sculptures in the shape of bulls made of pottery.

The Tchogha Zanbil Ziggurat was built on five floors, but now only two floors remain.

Some of the bricks used in Tchogha Zanbil are glazed and are considered to be the oldest tiles in the world.

The first examples of Iranian glassmaking from the second millennium BC have been obtained in Tchogha Zanbil. The glass wires found are mass-produced and of the same dimensions.

The city is made up of three fences and seven gates. There are many palaces, temples and structures between each fence.

The first fence buildings

This fence includes ziggurats and temples. There are 6 gates in this fence, which is the way for pilgrims to enter the temple grounds. The first fence is made of clay and is called Temnos.

Ziggurat

In ancient times, people believed that the gods lived in paradise and that they had to go to high places to worship the gods. So, they built ziggurats to get closer to the gods.

The ziggurats were in fact multi-story temples built with the goal of bringing humans closer to the gods. This religious building was built during the Babylonian and Assyrian periods in Mesopotamia. During the Elamite period, these buildings were also built in Iran.

The Tchogha Zanbil ziggurat was dedicated to two of the great Elamite gods, Inshushinak and Napirisha.

Temple of the Goddess Inshushinak

This temple is a gift to the goddess Inshushinak. The temple has 5 rooms.

  The entrance arch of the temple gate is known as the “luxurious (Mojallal)gate”. The luxurious (Mojallal) gate is made of wood and decorated with glass. The safest and best latches and hinges are found in the Inshushinak Temple.

Triple Shrines

Three shrines have been identified in which interesting objects have been discovered. Objects that the Assyrian soldiers did not want to loot. Items such as sculptures of boars, cows, turtles and birds made of glass paste.

The Great Gate

The Great Gate is the largest and widest gate of the fences around the Ziggurat. This gate was for the movement of the king and the courtiers.

Northeast Gate

This gate is the largest and most important gate and has four towers. Two towers are located outside and the other two towers are located inside the fence.

Buildings inside the second fence

The fence that surrounds the first fence and part of Tchogha Zanbil.

Hyschemic and rheumatic temples

21 inscribed bricks have been found in this temple. The names of these two ancient Elamite gods are engraved on the inscriptions.

Susa Gate

This passage is very narrow and few people passed through this place. The floor of this gate is paved with broken clay. The ground outside the gate is also paved with pebbles.

Third fence

The third fence of Tchogha Zanbil represented the city limits. The last fence includes the first and second fences and the complex of Tchogha Zanbil buildings. On the brick walls, gutters are made to direct water out of the fence to prevent water from penetrating under the wall and around the gutters.

Other buildings in Tchogha Zanbil

Palace of Tombs

Near the third fence, there is a complex called the royal court. In this complex, there are 5 underground tombs (Elamite kings and princes), which is known as the Palace of Tombs.

Nosco Shrine

This (T) shaped building is located in the King’s residence. This place was the private shrine of the king and the royal family.

Tchogha Zanbil refinery

The refinery is another special feature of this complex. This refinery is one of the oldest refineries in the world and is unique in its kind for that period.

The main source of water for this treatment plant was Karkheh River and it reached Tchogha Zanbil through a 45 km canal. It is only 3 km away from Dez river, but the temple water is supplied from Karkheh River. The main reason for the lack of water supply from the Dez River is the high distance of Tchogha Zanbil from the surface of the Dez River.

Tchogha Zanbil Ziggurat Observatory

This was a solar observatory or solar calendar to calculate the solar rotation and the calendar. This Tchogha Zanbil observatory has been used to extract the calendar and identify the early and middle days of each season.

The building blocks of the Tchogha Zanbil solar meters are octagonal in shape for the observatory.

Solar meters are designed so that the time of sunrise or sunset can be detected by looking at the shadows created from it. The beginning or middle of each season can also be identified by these clocks.

 

 

Tchogha Zanbil is one of the most impressive ruins of antiquity, not only in the Middle East but also in the world. This area attracts many tourists every year.

  In 1979, Chogha Zanbil became the first Iranian site to be inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.By joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel Agency, visit this unique historical monument and experience a pleasant travel experience.

 

 

 

yazd | Amir chakhmaq mosque

Alexandria Prison

Alexander’s Prison or Ziayeh School

Alexandria Prison of Yazd, like most of the historical attractions of this city, is located in Fahadan and with its very beautiful and extraordinary architecture and fine art in different parts, it shows its beauty and glory. Up to 9 meters, it shows a unique civilization even in the heart of the desert.

As the name of the building indicates, its construction dates back to the time of Alexander the Great and documents and signs from the year 631 AH can be seen in it. This building was built by Zia al-Din Hussein Razi and after 74 years by his sons Full was available.

Unlike the early years when the building was built and used to imprison Alexander the Great’s exiles, it eventually became a very important school, where eight centuries of famous people studied and taught.

Considering that the story of Alexander’s Prison in Yazd dates back to the 7th to 8th centuries AH, there are different narrations of Rajab. Some believe that Alexander built this prison in the path of his power-seeking. Others believe that Zia al-Din Hussein Razi took the first step in building the Ziaieh school, and later his sons Majdaldin Hassan and Sharafuddin Ali completed the construction of the school.

The amazing architecture of Alexander Prison

One of the reasons that made Alexander’s Prison in Yazd very famous is the type of architecture and the splendor that can be seen in its different parts.

The architecture used in Alexander’s Prison or Ziaieh School has a unique feature. The architectural style of this building is Azeri or Mongolian, which was common during the Ilkhanid period. In the construction of this building, only raw clay has been used and there is not much news about decorative tiles. Although this building has been reconstructed and restored so far, but the use of raw clay can be considered the reason for its durability.

Different sections of Alexander’s Prison

 This old building has important parts which are:

Dome

The dome can be seen in most Iranian and Islamic historical monuments. The dome of Alexander’s Prison in Yazd, like other parts, is made of clay. At first, this building was simple and without decoration, but the appearance of this building includes designs in golden and azure colors. This dome is about 18 meters high. One of the uses of this building is to keep the indoor air of Alexander’s Prison in Yazd for the residents and to repel the heat of the sun.

Shabestan

Alexander’s Prison in Yazd also had a large nave, with altars in this section and large and small porches in different parts of the prison, each with a special architecture.

This altar is made of plaster and several porches. There are several courtyards in the nave of Alexander’s Prison in Yazd, one of which is known as the final courtyard with 38 steps to a depth of 2.8 meters.

Windbreaker

Yazd means the city of windbreaks and weather conditions and increasing weather in summer cause them to be created next to buildings. Due to the weather conditions in Yazd and also the extreme heat, the wind deflectors work in the cooling of the cooling system for houses and buildings. The windshield of Alexandria Prison circulates the air flow well in the whole complex and causes the air to cool down. Next to the Alexander’s Prison building, there is a room called the windbreak room, which is used for airflow. The architecture of Yazd is known for its windmills

Wells and main yard

The large and rectangular courtyard of Alexander’s Prison or Ziaieh School has 3 large porches for residents.

One of the interesting parts of Alexander’s Prison or Ziaieh School is a well 2.8 meters deep in the middle of the courtyard of the mansion, which was created due to the collapse of the stream in the courtyard of the building. At the bottom of this well, there is an old water reservoir and basement with a depth of approximately 5 meters, and the reason for its existence is to provide water and use it for school residents.

Museum

There is a collection of old tablets and tombstones in this complex. To go to this well 2 to 2.8 meters, you have to go down 38 steps.

The crypt

The crypt and pond were used to quench the thirst of the school, and some said that prisoners were imprisoned there. There are both stories about this crypt, but the most probable story is that the waterfall and the courtyard collapse at some point, causing a hole in the middle of the courtyard of Alexander Prison in Yazd.y

shiraz | Persian garden

The Persian Garden

The Persian Garden

Persian garden: Iranian garden has always played an important role throughout history

 in Iranian life and architecture, and it is one of the oldest and most important garden styles in the world. The important role of Persian gardens can be seen in the paintings of Kamaluddin Behzad, in the poems of Khayyam and Hafez, Saadi, in Persian fiction and Found in Iranian carpets.

Persian gardens were built in two categories (garden-palace) and (garden-tomb). Garden-palaces were built for kings and rulers, and the palace was generally placed in the center of the garden. Garden-tomb grounds were also built with the inspiration of heaven for the graves of important people.

The word garden (pardis) in Persian is the root of the word paradise (heaven) in English. Since the time of the Sassanids and then in the Islamic period, poetry and literature have always been full of respect and love for nature, and the aesthetic aspect of the garden was more important than before, and an attempt was made to make them an allegory of heaven. In this regard, in the design of Iranian gardens, descriptions of heaven were used to bring a place of comfort.

In the structure of Persian Garden, the slope of the land and access to water were the determining factors.

Slope gardens were built in such a way that the water flows in the direction of the slope.

Water has a historical place in Iran and has been a messenger of light and purity. This position is due to the lack of water in a country where a large percentage of it is desert. Water played a key role in the creation of Persian Garden, and the reason for the construction of historical Persian garden was the presence of natural springs or aqueducts in the region. The size of the Persian garden that was built also depended on the amount of water that was available for irrigation.

 Iranians mostly built gardens on sloping land and by placing stairs in the water path, they increased the sound of the water flow and used its pleasant sound.

 The use of fountains had a great effect on the appearance and beauty of Persian Garden. The water features, which were made with different designs and made of stone with white chips, gave a special effect to the gardens.

The pattern of four gardens is the next principle of making Persian Garden. In this pattern, four streams reach the center of the garden and divide the garden into four parts. The concept of the four gardens pattern is attributed to the following four concepts: four heavenly streams, four geographical directions, four seasons, four Classical elements.

Persian Garden have been registered in the world list of UNESCO. Visit the most spectacular gardens of Iran by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel Agency.

Pasargad garden

Pasargad garden and its complex of palaces are considered as the most enduring innovations of the Achaemenid period and the first example of Persian garden construction. This style of gardening has been used as a model in Iran and neighboring countries.

Cyrus the Great had personally ordered how to create the garden of Pasargad and how to plant the trees.

  The whole garden has an area of about 8 hectares, and 900 meters of limestone canal was built to bring water all over it. The way of distribution and division of water in the complex of gardens and palaces and the combination of architecture with nature are among the features that raise this garden as a mother model in Iranian gardening.

Shahzadeh Mahan Historical Garden

Shazdeh Mahan garden is one of the full-fledged Persian garden, which has been turned into a green garden in the heart of the desert with its unique engineering. This garden, which is on the UNESCO list, is one of the most visited tourist places in Iran.

 Prince’s Garden was located on the Silk Road and was a suitable place to build a beautiful aristocratic garden, which shows Iran’s water engineering in that period in a good way.

 The location of the garden on a sloping ground has led to the construction of streams full of steps in it, which are always flowing and double the beautiful appearance of the garden.

 The garden mansion is located at the end of it, and by standing on its upper porch, in addition to the views of the garden, you can also enjoy the views outside the garden.

Shiraz Eram Garden

Shiraz is a city full of beautiful gardens. But Eram Garden is famous for its fragrant orange trees and evergreen cedars.

Eram Garden with a mansion located in its heart, which is unique and inspiring in terms of architecture and interior design. The construction of the garden dates back to the Seljuk period and has been renovated many times since then.

Eram garden is placed in the category of garden-palaces. The garden is rectangular in shape and surrounded by mud walls. The mansion is placed at a height above the garden level so that they have a general view of the garden. The large pool in front of the building adds a lot of grandeur to the building. A water stream flows along the pool, which is divided into other streams.

Dowlat Abad Garden, Yazd

Dowlat Abad Garden is one of the oldest gardens in Yazd. To supply water and build a garden, a 65-kilometer-long aqueduct was dug through which water was brought from Mehriz to Dowlat Abad Garden. This garden is very full of water and many people used to come to the garden to watch its fountains and streams. The many watery pools crystallize the feeling of vitality in the visitors.

The architecture of Dowlat Abad mansion and its 33-meter Windcatcher, which is the tallest wind turbine in the world, brings a cool atmosphere in the heat of summer with the combination of wind and water. The garden is very symmetrical and is divided into two parts, the outer garden and the inner garden. The axis of symmetry of the garden is the blue sky, which is about 200 meters long. The arrangement of trees along the main axis has led visitors’ eyes and focused the garden on the main mansion.

Fin Garden, Kashan

Fin Garden is one of the manifestations of Iranian architecture and design art. The design of the garden and the use of water streams, pools, and trees have given this garden a lively appearance.

According to historical documents, the old garden was during Al-Boyeh era, whose initial design was done by Ghiyasuddin Jamshid Kashani. The garden was completely destroyed due to the earthquake and the Mughal attack. However, during the Safavid era, the current building was revived with the design of Sheikh Baha’i.

  Fin garden has many buildings in its collection such as bath, palace and etc.

Bagh Fin was considered one of the most famous historical buildings and very important events happened in this building, including the murder of Amir Kabir.

Abbas Abad Historical Garden, Behshahr

Abbas Abad Historical Persian garden in Behshahr is the most important non-desert garden in Iran, which, in addition to its historical attraction, also has a unique natural attraction. This garden is one of the largest Persian garden and its architecture is valuable. This complex is one of the non-desert gardens of Iran, which was built in the 11th century by the order of Shah Abbas Safavi.

 The complex includes a garden, a lake and a bathhouse, and a four-arched brick building is located in the center of the lake. The water of the lake is supplied by winter rains.

The Persian garden of this complex is built on a natural hill, which was created by cutting the hill, creating a matching and stepped garden. This unique garden is built like other Persian garden and is one of the most unique gardens in Iran.

Chehel Sotoun, Isfahan

Chehel Sotoun is one of the examples of Persia garden left over from the Safavid period. This garden is a small part of the vast panoramic garden that Shah Abbas I created by building a palace in the center of the garden of the first Chehel Sotoun Palace. Despite the damage, this garden still has stunning beauty for visitors.

  The vegetation of the garden includes Persian pine, elm, black maple and sycamore trees. The area of the palace is 2120 square meters and the building of the mansion is one meter higher than the level of the garden.

Pahlavanpur Garden,Yazd

Pahlavanpur Garden is one of the most abundant and greenest gardens in Mehr Riz-Yazd. This garden dates back to the Qajar period. Three important aqueducts of the city pass through this garden. Despite the dry and hot climate of Yazd province, pomegranates, persimmons and almonds grow in this garden, and this is due to the abundance of water in this garden.

The garden complex includes the main palace, stables, Ab anbar, central courtyard, bathroom, kitchen, etc.

Akbariyeh Garden, Birjand

Akbariye Garden with an area of ​​about 4 hectares is one of the tourist attractions of South Khorasan province.

Experts attribute the beginning of the construction of the garden to the end of the Zandiya period or the beginning of the Qajar period, but the construction of this garden was completed in the Qajar period.

The garden was created on a sloping ground and the mansion was built in the highest part of the garden. The main two-story mansion is located in the central part and has a special symmetry and proportion.

  Many shady trees have been planted and most of the garden is devoted to planting fruit trees and medicinal plants.

 There is a main permanent water stream and several secondary streams in the garden, the sound of which is very pleasant. A large pool, one of the important elements of Iranian gardens, occupies a major part of the garden space. This pool has a square platform in the middle that stands out in the garden.

Persian Gardens  are registered in the world list of UNESCO. By joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel Agency, visit these unique historical monuments and experience a pleasant travel experience.

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System | Iran travel Time

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System: Achaemenians have built amazing buildings in the history of their rule. Buildings that, in addition to their beauty and splendor, are famous for their precise engineering structure. One of the most beautiful and precise engineering architectures, whose construction lasted until the Sassanid era, is Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System.

History

Shushtar historical hydraulic systems have a very rich history and their construction dates back to the Achaemenid era. Considering the engineering science and tools of that time, this monument is a very strange phenomenon that has been registered in UNESCO.

 The city of Shushtar has a history of thousands of years and dates back to the Paleolithic era.One of the reasons for Shushtar’s constant prosperity throughout history is its proximity to the Karun River. The proximity of Shushtar to the temple of Chaghazanbil made this city very important among the Elamites. Therefore, the first Iranian civilizations were formed in Shushtar.

 The Achaemenid era was the peak of Iranian civilization, art and science. They built this industrial and water structure with very precise engineering. Shushtar historical hydraulic system was rebuilt many times during the Sassanid, Seljuk, Qajar and even Pahlavi eras. But unfortunately, a strong flood caused severe damage to this structure.

The purpose of the Achaemenians in building this hydraulic system was to make more use of running water. Over time, various parts were added to this clay hydraulic system and formed the largest water museum of ancient Iran.

Among the attractions of Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system, bridges, dams, mills, water guiding channels are all built with the most accurate mathematical and environmental calculations in running water to supply urban water and water needed by agricultural lands in the best way.

Architecture

Shushtar historical hydraulic system architecture is one of the wonders of history. The architecture and resistance of this building over the years is one of its unique features. Building such a great structure with simple tools required a very high level of knowledge at that time. In order to fully waterproof the structure, the architects created holes in the stone and mortar so that this structure would remain healthy for thousands of years.

One of the most important architectural goals of Shushtar’s historical hydraulic system was the diversion of Karun water to another direction. This work was done with complete precision and elegance, and the bottom of this stream was well waterproofing so that the stream bed would not be destroyed over time.

After that, the water was collected behind a high dam and passed through the holes created on the rock. Then the water was passed through the water mills and finally entered the streams and tunnels. At the end, the water flowed from the rocks into a small pond in the form of a beautiful waterfall to provide the agricultural and drinking needs of the villagers.

 Iranians attached great importance to the water distribution system and, of course, saving its consumption, and Shushtar’s  historical hydraulic system is a sign of this.

 

Shushtar historical hydraulic system has different parts. Each of these parts has played an important role in the overall performance of the structure.

1- Gargar Bridge-Dam

This bridge was built on the path of the Gargar River to block the water and create a level difference, to direct the water into the three channels. These canals direct part of the water to the mills, and in addition to starting the mill cycle, part of the water flows into the water ponds through waterfalls.

2- Mizan Dam

The beginning of the process of dividing water in Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system takes place from this Dam. This Dam is made of stone and Sarooj in a semi-circle shape and is located on the Karun River. The Mizan dam is responsible for dividing water between the Gargar and Shatit rivers. The dam is about 400 meters long and 5 meters high. The purpose of building this dam was to raise the water level for easier use of water resources in agriculture.

3-Kolah Ferangi tower

At the end of Mizan Band and on top of the hill, there is an octagonal brick tower with a height of 7 meters, which has a complete view of the band. According to the historical documents of this tower, it was the observation point of Caesar Rome or Shapur Sassani to monitor the workers in Mizan Band. Today, a large part of this damaged tower has been registered in the list of national monuments of Iran.

4- The hand-made river of Gregar

When the Mizan Dam divides the water of the Karun River, a part of this water flows into a river whose bed and path were designed and created by the architects of Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system. This 40 km route became known as the Gregar River. Today, there are many green palm trees around this river, which are called Bagh Khan.

5-Water mills

There are many water mills in Shushtar historical hydraulic system. These water mills have shown the government’s focus on the maximum use of natural energy. In this system, the power of water caused movement in the mill cycles. The rotation of the mill was a great help in preparing flour for the farmers. According to historical studies, there were 40 water mills in this area in the past, today only half of these mills remain.

6- 4000 year old staircase

These handmade stairs connected Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system to the residential area. Historians have estimated the age of the stairs to be a thousand years ago. There are stone inscriptions on the path of the stairs, which show that this beautiful clay path has a much longer history.

7-Dara Dam

  Different dynasties used Shushtar’s historic hydraulic system and a new part has been added to it in each period. Dara Dam, which is located on the Gargar River, is considered one of the most important dams in this region. This Dam dates back to the Achaemenid period and has a very high historical value.

8- Darion channel

The name of the Darion River is derived from the name of Darius the Great. The function of this channel is to transfer water from the north to the south of the city. The Mianab plain was irrigated through this channel.

 

The historical hydraulic system complex of Shushtar is full of tourist attractions. Visiting this historical complex will be a unique experience for every tourist.

This monument is known as one of the technical and engineering masterpieces of the world, which has been registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System have been registered in the world list of UNESCO and by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular system.