Zoroastrian crypt silence tower

best Zoroastrian crypts or silence tower of Yazd

Remembrance of corpses in Zoroastrian crypt

The Zoroastrian crypt of Yazd or silence tower is a place where the Zoroastrians placed the bodies of the dead in these places based on the belief that the corpses were impure so that the flesh of these dead bodies could be eaten by predators and birds. According to Zoroastrians, burying a human corpus contaminated the sacred element of the soil.

In Zoroastrianism, mourning for the dead is forbidden. In ancient times, there was no building as a crypt, and corpus were placed only in remote places to be destroyed. The use of the term refers to a time when the Aryan tribes burned the corpus of the dead and the burial sites were called Crypt.

 With the advent of Zoroastrianism, the custom of burning the body became obsolete; But the crypt remained in place and was used to mean the location of the deceased or the burial place of the case.

The architecture of the caves

The Zoroastrian crypt of Yazd or silence tower is a circular area that is located 100 meters above the mountain and is far from the city. The walls around the Zoroastrian crypt of Yazd or silence tower were made of stone and cement, and a small iron door was installed for entry and exit. The crypts had special sections, each with a specific function. The various sections of the crypt included the crypt road, in stone or iron court, the crypt inscription, the male-female ring, the female-female ring, the child-ring of the child, and the master or coffin. Zoroastrian crypt of Yazd or silence tower were built so that carnivorous animals and birds could access the corpus with the passage of time and changes in the religion of Zoroaster, the function of the Crypt became more complicated, and from then on, the corpses of the dead were removed by light. The tombs were cylindrical towers made of stone so that they would not be made of soil.

 Most of them probably did not even have a door and went inside them with a ladder. Natural stone was found and the dead were tied to it, then vultures and carnivores ate and cleaned the dead body except for the bones. In the middle of this tower, there was a hole in which the surviving bones of ordinary people were thrown and the bones of the great and powerful were kept in “Ostudan” or “Asadaneh”.

Zoroastrian crypt of Yazd or silence tower road

Because the crypt was so far from where people lived, they had to use the road to reach it. Part of this road was used by the public to bring corpus for delivery; But from the bottom of the Zoroastrian crypt of Yazd or silence tower to the door, only the crypt officials were allowed to cross. Today, the road that has been used for transportation is a staircase so that people can easily go to the caves.

Inside the crypt

The inner surface of the tower consists of a flat, round space covered by large boulders. This section hypothetically consists of three circular strips, which are:

The male part or the male corpus ring in the end circle strip, which is larger than the other circles and attached to the wall around the crypt.

The female section or the female dead ring is in the middle circle bar after the male section.

The children’s section or the children’s dead circle in the inner circle bar, which is the closest part to the center of the Zoroastrian crypt of Yazd or silence tower.

A hole in the middle of a rocky ground

The inner surface of the Zoroastrian crypt of Yazd or silence tower has a slope from the wall to the center and in the middle of the crypt reaches a deep well with a moving rock called “ervis” at the bottom. This deep well was connected to the four deeper wells around the crypt, and one meter deep all the wells were filled with sand. The middle well of the crypt was covered with stone and cement so that germs and contamination would not spread outside when the bones were present and before the well was cleaned. The name of this tea means bone place.

The ritual of building a tomb

The construction of the Zoroastrian crypt of Yazd or silence tower also had a special ritual that had to be observed. Among these ceremonies, we can mention the tradition of hitting 4 large nails, 36 medium nails and 260 small nails on the ground. The builders wrapped a special cotton string around the nails and recited some special Zoroastrian prayers. After this stage, they had to sit in the middle of the crypt and read a certain zikr 300 times, with each zikr a small stone was thrown into the crypt until the number of stones reached 300. After performing these rituals, the crypt was built in this place.

last word

The cemetery of good and bad people. The cemetery that invited people away from memories. It was a place to transfer from this mortal world to the next world. This place, which has a special etiquette, is related to Zoroastrian religion, who believed that man is born from nature and returns to nature.

if you want to travel to Iran, better to read more about the most and best beauties of Yazd monuments, so click here.

oak travel agency provide the best services and tour packages for you just see our packages and contact us.

Bam citadel largest adobe building in world

Bam Citadel

Magnificent Bam citadel

Magnificent Bam citadel is located in the southeast of Lut desert and near the city of Bam. This unique adobe structure is one of the most famous attractions of Kerman province, which is registered in the list of UNESCO World Heritage and National Monuments of Iran. Bam citadel has been one of the defense structures and throughout history it has protected the eastern regions of Iran like a strong fence.

This structure was considered the largest adobe structure in the world until the terrible earthquake of 2002 in Bam.

The great Bam fortress has a citadel that is located in its highest part; Because of the grandeur of this citadel, the whole fortress was called a citadel. Bam citadel was located on the Silk Road and provided the possibility of connecting Iran with Central Asia, the Persian Gulf and Egypt.

 The ancient city of Bam citadel is a collection of tall buildings that includes two parts, the serfs and the government. Each structure has its own function. This citadel has an area of about 18,000 square meters and walls with a height of 6 to 7 meters are built around it. These walls are nested and separate the center and different parts of the citadel.

The historical magnificent Bam citadel, which is more than 2,500 years old, has played an important role in the history and culture of Iran. This citadel has repeatedly prevented invaders from attacking Iran.

History of Bam Citadel

There are many speculations about the age of the bass drum; Some date it to the Achaemenid period and some to the Parthian period. A large number of buildings in it were built in the Timurid to Qajar period. According to historical writings, the age of this citadel reaches two thousand years ago, and the clays discovered in the ruler’s house are a proof of this claim.

 Multiple building layers indicate successive constructions in different periods. The architecture of the citadel is one of the cases of estimating the building’s age. The porch of the citadel mosques is similar in dimensions to the structures of the 4th to 7th centuries, i.e., the Samanid to Seljuk period. The architecture of the entrance arch of the citadel is also similar to the style of the Sassanid era and it is attributed to this period. Documents about the campaigns of the first Sassanid king (Ardeshir Babakan) in the late Parthian period to Bam region.

The architecture of the magnificent Bam citadel

Bam Citadel is built in the shape of a small city with a strong fortress to prevent enemy infiltration in addition to establishing security in the city. The magnificent Bam Citadel is similar to many examples in Central Asia and Mesopotamia and has the structural features of a Hippodamian city. According to the traditions of the Medes and Parthians, the citadel was built on a high hill to make it difficult for enemies to access it and to increase the control over the surrounding areas. The materials used in this 2,500-year-old adobe castle are clay, straw and raw clay, which has preserved its original skeleton over the centuries. The strength and grandeur of the magnificent Bam citadel caused it to be called “the citadel of God created” in the Qajar period.

This region has high heat and low humidity, so the citadel was built in a place with the highest amount of wind; The wind enters the citadel from the western part and passing through the corridors, it goes to the ruling part. Engineers used the water supply system and windbreaker to cool the citadel and passed the wind flow through this water supply system to reduce the air temperature of the citadel.

Different parts of the Bam Citadel

Tower and Battlement

 A very large tower and rampart surrounds Bam Castle. 29 watchtowers have been built at indefinite intervals on the hills of this place and 76 watchtowers have been built in the city. Trapezoidal apertures were built in the tower to observe the city, which widened the field of vision and greatly limited the possibility of arrows passing through and injuring the guards.


  One of the unique features of the magnificent Bam citadel is its four fences. The first fence is 18 meters high and it protected the people from the attack of the enemy and its width is more than 6 meters in some places. Watchtowers were also built into the fences so that, in addition to strengthening the fence, it would be a place for officers and guards to rest.


The houses of the citadel are normal, semi-noble and noble. Smaller houses belonged to poor people and had two to three rooms. Houses with three to four rooms and verandas were reserved for the middle class of society. Noble houses were equipped with water wells, stables and private bathrooms. The ruler’s house, at a height of 61 meters, was made of two parts, summer and winter room.


  The initial wall of the city consisted of four large gates. After closing the gates, it was not possible for any animal or human to enter it. The existence of gardens, water wells and domestic animals inside the citadel allowed people to live behind closed gates for a long time.


The capacity of the stable area was about 200 horses. The stable is considered to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the citadel, which is decorated with plasterwork from the Mughal and Timurid periods.

The wonders of the Bam citadel

Windbreaker or Wind tower

  In the architecture of the houses, ventilation was built in, which directed the wind into the house and cooled the space like a natural cooler. The presence of small ponds was in the direction of the wind, in addition to cooling the air, it removes dust, and this is a unique architectural style. The magnificent citadel is Bam.

Children’s cemetery

After the earthquake of 2002, bones were thrown out of the citadel wall, which included 68 bodies of children and babies, whose age dates back to many years ago. According to research, this castle was used to bury the bodies of children from the Safavid era until recent years. There are patterns on children’s shrouds that are not in accordance with Islamic laws, and apparently, in the past, people with different religions lived in Arg Bam. It is said that the age of the bodies is related to the restoration of the citadel fence after the attack of Afghans to the Qajar period.

Visiting this magnificent castle and getting to know the unique architecture of this castle will be very enjoyable and will create a unique travel experience for you. According to the weather of Kerman province, the best time to visit the magnificent Bam citadel is during the cool seasons of the year.

Bam citadel is registered in the world list of UNESCO. By joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel Agency, visit this unique historical monument and experience a pleasant travel experience.

Bahram fire temple in yazd

Bahram Fire Temple in Yazd

Bahram Fire Temple in Yazd

Bahram fire temple: In Yazd province, there are several famous Zoroastrian fire temples. The Bahram Fire Temple in Yazd, or the Fire Temple in Yazd, is one of the most valuable fire temples in Iran, where the sacred fire is kept. This mansion is one of the sacred buildings of Zoroastrians that dates back to the first Pahlavi era. Entering this place, which is considered as a Zoroastrian shrine, and as there is a hierarchy for worship, has always been associated with special rituals and rituals for worshipers of the Zoroastrian religion, because in the Zoroastrian religion, men and women must enter Use white hats and scarves, as well as light-colored clothing, respectively. Wearing shoes that have not been allowed to enter holy places in Iranian culture for a long time.

The Bahram Fire Temple in Yazd dates back to the Pahlavi era and its construction dates back to 80 years ago, but the fire that burns inside it has been lit for more than 1,500 years. This fire is from the fire of the fire temple of Karian in Larestan, which was brought to Aqda in Yazd and kept there for nearly 700 years; Then he was transferred from Aqda to Ardakan in 522 and it was clear in Ardakan of Yazd for nearly 300 years until he moved from Ardakan to Yazd in 852. The fire continued to move in Yazd. In 1313 AH, after the construction of Bahram fire temple, it was taken inside.

Fire story

In the distant past, there was no match or other means to light a fire, so in one place, a fire was always lit so that people could take a flower from the fire daily and light their stoves. This place was called the fire temple.

The children of the family were responsible for bringing fire from the fire temple, so a family that did not have children had its stove turned off, which is the origin of the Iranian proverb “a person whose stove is off”. For this reason, one of the sweet wishes for every family was this sentence: “Let the stove be green”.

Fire temple architecture

Examining the buildings that were used as fire temples, we find that the fire temple building was simple and unadorned. The design of this place is based on the hierarchy and spatial zoning of the Persian fire temples of India, but the architecture of this building, like other buildings built in the desert areas of Iran, has the same architectural patterns of Iran. This building is located in the center of the yard. Its height reaches 21 meters above the ground and to enter that place, you have to go through 8 steps.

The Bahram Fire Temple was built in November 1313 with the capital of a Persian Zoroastrian named “Hamabaei” on a plot of land dedicated by several Iranian Zoroastrians in memory of their father’s death. The painting of Faroohar and the stone capitals have created a special beauty for the building of the Temple of Mars. Also, these capitals and flower stones at the bottom of the wall of Iranian art show the traces of decorations.

There is a large circular pool at the beginning of the entrance to the Bahram fire temple. The Zoroastrians placed the sacred fire in a room built by the architects in the center of the building. This will keep the fire away from sunlight. Around it, there are rooms for Zoroastrians to perform the ritual of prayer and supplication.

Fire Temple of Yazd

The history of this fire is stated in the book of Zoroaster: “After the establishment of the Ilkhanate rule in Iran, some Zoroastrians and priests from all over Iran, who were displaced after the initial Mongol invasions, moved to a small village in the northwest corner of Yazd called” Turkabad “. That an old fire temple of Anahid, still there, safe and sound from the events of the time, they migrated and placed their “Fire of Bahram” in a humble, brick house in a nearby village called “Sharifabad.” Turkabad and Sharifabad became the most important centers of Zoroastrian gathering from this time. This sacred fire, which was lit during the Sassanid period by the order of the priest of the priest’s “Carter” and was located in a temple in the pool, was lit by the Zoroastrians through all these years. Took. This fire of Mars, which was continuously burning since the beginning of the Sassanid era, has remained in this safe place since then and continues to this day, as the “holiest Zoroastrian fire” in the “Zoroastrian Association of Yazd” and “Kerman Fire Temple”.

You can read more information about Yazd city or another cities of Iran. 

yazd | Amir chakhmaq mosque

Jameh Mosque of Yazd

Jameh Mosque of Yazd


Jameh Mosque of Yazd with a history of 900 years, is one of the most magnificent and beautiful historical buildings and sights of Yazd province, which is located in the center of the Yazd city with high minarets. Jameh Mosque of Yazd is a porch in the heart of the desert and has been built for about 1000 years and three periods. The main foundations of the mosque were laid on a fire temple during the Sassanid period, but after Islam in the patriarchal and Timurid period, it was completed as a mosque.

Jameh Mosque of Yazd is the oldest example of architecture in the ninth century AH in the architecture of the religious district of Yazd. The length of Yazd Grand Mosque is 104 meters and its width is 99 meters and it has seven entrances. These seven entrances are connected to several alleys and exit routes. In the past, the mosque was located in the middle of the old city, in the middle of the fence.

This building is famous for its sleeping dome, high and tall entrance, as well as beautiful and unique tiles. Jameh Mosque of Yazd is really a combination of three mosques that have been formed in different historical periods.



The original builder of this mosque was Ala Al-Dawlah Kalnjar, a descendant of Al-Buwayh and ruler of Yazd during the reign of the Seljuk king. His buildings have been destroyed. After him, Sayyid Rukn al-Din Nizam al-Husseini built the current Jameh Mosque with a luxurious building on a large plot of land on the side of the Qibla.

Rokn al-Din died while the building of the dome and porch was unfinished, and after him Ashraf al-Din Ali Yazdi, one of the famous Yazd in the Timurid period, completed the construction of the dome and porch according to the will of Seyyed Rokn al-Din. After this, during the reign of Amir Teymour, the dome and porch of the mosque were tiled.

The construction and completion of the Jameh Mosque of Yazd has been done during a century and in different historical periods, the most important of which are the patriarchal monarchy, Safavids, Timurid rule, Al-Muzaffar and Qajar rule. In fact, every part of this monument has been built and restored over time by several founders.

The construction and completion of the Jameh Mosque of Yazd has been done during a century and in different historical periods, the most important of which are the patriarchal monarchy, Safavids, Timurid rule, Al-Muzaffar and Qajar rule. In fact, every part of this monument has been built and restored over time by several founders.

Shia Islam symbols

The maps used in the decorations of the Jameh Mosque of Yazd are symbols that are somehow related to the beliefs of the Shiite religion; These paintings include sun and star motifs, chandelier motifs, altar-like motifs, chain plasters, and so on. The sun and the star make up the majority of the designs used in the mosque.

Star motifs in the interior of the mosque dome

Some of these geometric and Islamic motifs, such as the 72 full-headed suns at the entrance, the suns of the south porch and altar-like designs on the decorative columns of the dome entrance, are some of the landmark motifs used in the Jameh Mosque of Yazd, which is in another building. From this era and in this beauty and grandeur cannot be found.

These motifs in the Jameh Mosque show a kind of Shiite thought of its builders and founders, considering the establishment of a central Sunni government at the time of construction.

Entrance of Jameh Mosque of Yazd

Jameh mosque of Yazd is one of the most beautiful mosques of the Timurid period, which is one of the most beautiful architectural masterpieces of the ninth century AH in terms of tiling, high porch, minarets and inscriptions. The height of the minarets is 52 meters and although the main building of the mosque is attributed to before the Timurid period, but the current building according to existing inscriptions shows that it was built in the Timurid period.

 The inscriptions of the mosque are one in brick Kufic script and the other in white thirds script on azure tiles. In the text of Sardar inscription, the name of Shahrokh Teymouri and Sultan Jahanshah and the date 861 AH is mentioned.

This mosque is important for several reasons: First, it is the oldest example of architecture that has been imitated in the religious architecture of Yazd region during the ninth century AH; The design consists of a domed mausoleum and a long, elongated rectangular nave. The rectangular plan of the mosque is derived from the architectural pattern of the Kaaba. It has a completely sacred and sublime building in Islam and is used as a cosmic symbol in Muslim architectural patterns.

According to Master Pirnia, this dome has two shells, and the inner covering of the dome, which is formed in accordance with the spatial and executive requirements of the mosque’s interior architecture, creates conditions that are different from the outer covering, which is formed in accordance with the external requirements.

Another important feature of the building is the widespread use of national arches in the naves, which is accompanied by mosaic tiles. Another noteworthy point in the building of Jameh Mosque of Yazd is the issue of creating indirect lighting by reflecting light from the white plaster of the dome and walls. 

Also, the decorations inside and outside the dome, the exterior-interior view of the main porch and its beautiful altar, which is one of the important parts of the mosque, are extremely valuable and interesting. How the mosque was formed: These three finally became a single large mosque during the Qajar period.


last word

Jameh Mosque of Yazd is a meeting place for lovers to spend time with their constant companion. God welcomes you in his house to sit at the feet of your pain and heart and talk about love. For this peaceful rendezvous, in different cities and villages of Iran, prominent artists and architects gather to create a place full of love and beauty.

The combination of geometric motifs with Islamic motifs in the tiling decorations of the mosque is such that at first glance, it is not easy to distinguish between them.

Invite yourself to see the challenge of the blue color of the mosque among the blue color of the sky.

Aghazadeh Historical House of Abarkooh in Yazd province

Aghazadeh Historical House of Abarkooh

Alive history in Aghazadeh Historical House of Abarkooh

Aghazadeh Historical House: Some houses are abandoned, but they are still alive, and if you listen to their walls, you can hear the sound of joy and mourning, laughter and tears, anger and fights, the words and sayings of its former inhabitants, and find out their secrets. Aghazadeh Historical House in Abarkooh is one of the beautiful and historical complexes in Abarkooh city in Yazd province. This house has the most beautiful two-floors windbreaks-Towers in Iran, and this is one of the reasons why this house is so important. In 1157 AH, “Haj Hossein Abarqavi”, one of the rich people of the city, ordered the construction of this beautiful building.

Architecture of Aghazadeh Historical House

Clay, mud and bricks were used in the construction of Aghazadeh Historical House, because the use of these materials in the construction of buildings reduced construction costs and also balanced the ambient temperature.

In Aghazadeh Historical House, wood was used to make doors and windows, and gypsum mortar was used in plastering, and the combination of all these elements has made the house more beautiful. This house has two floors.

On the northwest side of the house is the entrance, which ends in a courtyard through a corridor. The rooms and other parts of the house are built in three directions of the yard. Thus, in different seasons when the sunlight is different, due to the hot and cold weather and the amount of light, one of these parts of the house was used.

The front door of the house is located in the western part of this house and leads to a corner of the yard through a corridor. The south room is built in the style of a cruciform plan and also has a five-door room and cooling devices (khishkhan). The east and west rooms of the house are also in the form of three doors and five doors.

Windbreaks of Aghazadeh’s historical house in Abarkooh

Yazdi windbreaker are larger and taller than other windbreakers and usually their structure was considered four-way or eight-way. The windbreaks of Aghazadeh Historical House are built above the main hall and have two floors. This beautiful windbreak is 18 meters high, 18 square meters in area and has 19 air flow control valves.

Pergola mansion in Aghazade historical house

In Aghazadeh Historical House in Abarkooh, there is a small mansion with beautiful decorations called a pergola, which dates back to the Qajar period. The architectural style of this building is a combination of Iranian and European architecture of that time. The pergola of Aghazadeh Historical House is located on the roof of the main hall, right next to the windbreak, and also forms the roof of the five main doors.

The architectural structure of the pergola mansion is eight feathers. In each side there is a window with colored glass and it is designed in such a way that it transmits the lightest to the main hall.

Basement with handcrafted architecture

There is a 400-year-old underground house in this historic house that has been dug by hand.

Last words

The delay of the Aghazadeh Historical House goes back to the Qajar period. This historical complex is built in a large area of 820 square meters.

A place with authenticity that speaks from the heart of history. This house is one of the most famous houses in Yazd, which beautifully shows all the styles of authentic Iranian art and architecture related to hot and dry regions.

Windbreakers-Towers of Yazd

Windbreakers(Towers) of Yazd

Windbreakers-Towers of Yazd

Windbreakers-Towers of Yazd are one of the symbols of Iranian architecture that are currently being built on houses in some parts of the Middle East. Windbreakers-Towers of Yazd are tall mansions built to ventilate and cool a house on its roof. Windbreaks are also built on top of reservoirs and openings for ventilation.

These mansions are the basic type of cooling systems today that cool the air in homes. Cool air was transferred to the rooms as well as parts under the ground through these wind deflectors. It is not clear exactly where the first Windbreakers-Towers of Yazd was built, but this structure represents Iranian civilization.

Windbreakers-Towers of Yazd are made in different shapes in the central and southern cities of Iran, each of which is designed and implemented according to the desired height and wind direction. The first Windbreakers-Towers were seen in Yazd and Kerman.

The great Windbreakers-Towers of Kerman’s Grand Bazaar, the windbreak of Dolatabad-Yazd Garden, the left windbreak of Sirjan and the windbreaks of Bandar Abbas, Bandar Lengeh, Qeshm and Sistan are among the most spectacular windbreaks in Iran.

Windbreakers-Towers consist of parts:


The column is actually a part of the windshield body that is located between the windshield opening and the roof of the building. Columns are usually in the form of cubes, rectangular cubes or prisms.


are brick and brick elements that divide the interior of the windshield, especially the windshield column, into several small channels.


The mouthpiece or ventilator is the upper part of the windshield which is the passage of air flow.


Includes the highest and final part of a wind deflector.

Wind deflectors come in several shapes based on their appearance:



A large part of the facade surface is in the direction of the desired wind and is often used in areas where the desired wind direction from northeast to southwest in summer.


Used for areas where the desired wind direction is varied.

Materials used in the construction of wind deflectors:

 Windbreaks have been specific to hot, dry, hot and humid areas. In hot, dry, hot and humid areas, the buildings are generally made of brick.

How Windbreakers-Towers work

When the wind blows, air enters the windshield column through the openings. The air pressure is reduced by a thin wall in the middle of the windshield column so that air does not escape from other openings.

For better performance of Windbreakers-Towers and in very hot areas, they used mats or thorn bushes that were placed right on the opening and water was poured on it. It got cooler and wetter as the air passed through the mouth

Wind deflectors have wooden valves that have been used in winter to close the wind inlet to the wind deflector.

General types of wind deflectors

One-way Windbreakers-Towers:

It is the simplest and most economical type of Windbreakers-Towers. In this type of windbreak, the desired wind has an entrance path from only one direction. Another appearance of this type of wind deflectors is their low height compared to other types.

Two-way windshield:

This windshield is known as a twin windshield due to its small size. This type of windshield is more accurate than one-way windshield wipers. And it is mostly used in reservoirs.

Three-way wind deflector:

Its structure is such that the larger direction of the wind deflector towards the wind was desirable and it had more openings for air entry. If the wind was blowing from the other side, there was a possibility of favorable air entering from the other two sides of the Windbreakers-Towers.

Four-way windshield:

The windshield is larger than other windshields and is also more complex, however it is the most beautiful type of windshield. Four-way wind deflectors are made from four directions due to the favorable wind. And over time, the figures have increased from four to six and eight, and even one has been seen in a circular shape.

Left wind deflector:

In this type of wind deflector, the outer cubic space has been changed and knee-shaped pipes have been used instead.

Two-story windshield:

To build these windshields, they usually first built a large four-way windshield with all the details; Then in the middle of it, another windbreak was built one or two meters or more in height from the first windbreak. The two wind deflectors were completely independent of each other, and if one was damaged, the work of the other would not be disrupted.

Iran has a rich and varied architectural history going back over 3,000 years, and the remains of Iranian architectural monuments can be found from Syria to India and China. Iranian architecture makes uses of a great variety of techniques such as stone carving, stucco and plasterwork, tile and brickwork, mirror and glasswork, and other ornamental elements. As in any architecture, geographical, religious, political, technological, and natural factors determine the quality and quantity of architecture.

As Iranian architecture has greatly influenced its neighboring countries, windmills can be found throughout the Middle East as well as North Africa and as far as India. Iran’s wind catchers stand as a reminder of how ancient civilizations have adapted to the region’s harsh desert environment. (Tower-

Lut desert

Lut Desert

Lut Desert


Lut desert is located in the southeast of Iran. The title of the most pristine spot in Iran has been given to Lut Desert. “Lut” in Balochi language means naked, thirsty and empty of everything.

  The major part of this great desert is sand.

  The time of formation of most deserts goes back to the third geological period, which were ancient lakes, and now the salt left over from their evaporation in the past prevents the growth of any plant in these areas. For this reason, geologists refer to the vast region of southeastern Iran as Lut Desert.

The vast area of Lut desert includes parts of the three vast provinces of Sistan and Baluchistan, South Khorasan and Kerman and extends from north to south. About 70% of this vast desert is in Kerman province and 30% is in South Khorasan and Sistan and Baluchistan provinces. Is located.

  The average length of Lut desert is estimated to be 900 km from north to south and 300 km from west to east. Due to the vastness of Lut desert, different regions with different climates and geographical features have been created in it.

Different parts of Lut desert

North Lut desert

In Northern Lut, there are many sedimentary and volcanic mountains and hills that have caused numerous earthquakes in this region.

The northernmost area of Lut desert, most of which is within the boundaries of South Khorasan and Birjand provinces, is considered a vast area whose height reaches 1000 meters in the northernmost parts and decreases to 500 meters as it moves towards the south.

Central lut

  Central Lut with 162 km length and 52 km width is known as “Chale Lut”. Central Lut is the most different part of the Lut desert, which is covered with huge masses of sand.There are scattered salt and chalk deserts in the central Lut.

South Lot

The southernmost region of Lut desert includes a major part of Kerman province and northern Sistan and Baluchistan. This region is more fertile than other parts in terms of vegetation and remains of ancient civilizations. It is divided into three parts in terms of geology:



This area is known as Hamada and it is full of big and small stones that are artistically placed together. That’s why Dasht Sar is also called Sangfarsh desert. Wind erosion, severe temperature changes and erosion by running water are the reasons for the existence of such an area that has no vegetation.


 Kalut is a local name that refers to deep ditches and huge sand pyramids that have emerged as a result of soil erosion. Lut Desert Kalut are located in an area of ​​80 km wide and 145 km long and are considered a unique phenomenon in the world. The reason for the existence of these Kalut is the erosion by the Shore River and the 120-day winds of Sistan, which have created the most spectacular attraction of Lut.

Sand dunes

 an area of ​​50 thousand hectares is covered with sand dunes. The height of some of these crescent-shaped hills reaches 500 meters.

Gandom Beriyan

Gandom beriyan on the west of the Lut, there are hills covered with stones and black volcanic lava, which has an area of ​​480 square kilometers. This area is devoid of life in the summer season, the air temperature is more than 71 degrees Celsius, and no living thing survives. The black covering of the area causes the air temperature to rise sharply. Being at a low altitude (400 meters above sea level) has also been declared as one of the reasons for the extreme heat in this area.


According to reports, in 2005, the infrared radiometer of NASA’s “Ecoai” satellite measured the temperature of the central areas of Lut desert at 70.7 degrees Celsius.

Vegetation and fauna of Lut desert

 In the central parts of Lut desert, there is no special plant and animal life; But in some days of the year when the weather conditions are more favorable, temporary life is observed. In the spring season in Dasht Sar region, after limited seasonal rains, grass plants grow and dry in a short time.

There are many species of plants in the Rig yalan area, including Calligonum and Haloxylon. The density of this vegetation is much higher in East Lut. In 20 km of Shahdad area, you can also see Tamarisk bushes. One of the amazing and unique phenomena of Lut desert are the sand pots (Nabkha). With a height of 10 meters, these Nabkhas are the tallest in the world, and they are surrounded by Tamarisk bushes. The tallest Nabkha in the African Sahara is only three meters high.

Animals that are resistant to dehydration live in Lut desert. These animals include all kinds of snakes and carrion-eating birds, Jaculus, foxes and Sand cats, and all kinds of Agamas.

  About 70 species of birds with white color have also been seen in Lut desert. The reason for their white color is less heat absorption. The water needed by the bird is also provided by eating insects or dew that is formed due to the temperature difference between day and night.


Lut desert at night

The temperature difference between night and day in the Lut desert is noticeable due to the lack of vegetation. Plants have a significant impact on the weather. Since no photosynthesis occurs in the desert, the temperature drops a lot. The heat of the day in the desert is not absorbed due to the lack of insulation of the sand to maintain the temperature and store the heat; Therefore, desert nights are very cold. There is a significant difference between Lut and other desert regions of the world, which is the 120-day winds of Sistan during the summer season, which makes the air temperature not increase during the day and not decrease at night. In fact, these winds play the role of regulating the temperature of Lut desert.

Secrets of the Lut Desert

Lut desert is considered the most inaccessible desert in the world. Shahdad’s Kalut are full of secrets. Some people believe that this is the cursed city of the “Lot people” who were turned into stone, and this is the reason why it was named the desert of Lut.

 The Kaluts are full of unknowns and there are still parts where no human has been. However, in the marginal areas of Lut and Shahdad deserts, artifacts such as pottery and stone vessels from ancient civilizations dating back to 3000 BC have been discovered.

 Parts of the central desert are so burning that even bacteria cannot live, but in an area called “Zangi Ahmad”, where there is no trace of water or life, there are traces of a dilapidated wooden tower surrounded by broken pottery and colored glass. has been

 In recent years, a fossil of a dinosaur’s nail has been discovered in Lut desert, which needs a more detailed investigation.

desert lake

One of the wonders of the Lut desert is the presence of running water, especially in the marginal areas of the desert. The dried riverbeds indicate ancient and abundant rivers in the past. These rivers flow a little during seasonal rains.


Shahdad’s Kaluts

Shahdad Kaluts has an area of 11,000 square kilometers and is a mysterious, unknown and frightening area; Because there are few signs of life in this area. The ancient city of Shahdad is considered to be the center of government of “Arata” tribes in ancient Iran. This is the place of discovery of the oldest metal flag in the world, which is called “Shahdad Flag”.

Shahdad’s Kaluts date back to 20,000 years ago.



The night sky of the desert is a paradise for astronomers, photographers and researchers due to the pristine nature of Lut compared to other deserts of Iran.

Lut desert has so many unique and different attractions that it arouses the interest of tourists. In addition to watching the legendary Kaluts, various side entertainments are also provided for tourists such as off-roading, camel riding, walking and photography.



Lut desert have been registered in the world list of UNESCO and by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular desert.

Iranian Qanats

The glory of Iran’s Qanats

The Glory of Iran’s Qanats

History of Qanats in Iran

Iranian Qanats are considered as the most important factor in the development of civilization. The Iranians, with their innovations and the construction of Qanats, were able to use water safely and permanently throughout the year. They are themselves. Most areas of Iran are hot and dry. Life in these areas is impossible due to rain and insufficient water. But Iranians have been able to meet their water needs by digging Qanats.

Other hot and dry regions of the world, such as Australia, are uninhabited, but in Iran, due to the digging of Qanats and its unique water supply system, many cities and villages have been formed. Agriculture is also thriving in these hot and dry areas, and products such as fruits, vegetables and oilseeds are produced.

Researchers believe that the first Qanat was built in Iran. Then in the Achaemenid period, the secret of this water supply system by the Iranians went to Oman, Yemen and the Horn of Africa. The Muslims then took the secret to Spain.

In 2014, an old Qanat dating back to the third millennium BC was discovered near the Samira Dam (western Iran). This discovery showed that the Qanat system was widespread throughout Iran and was not used only in the desert. In 2003, after the Bam earthquake, an Qanat was discovered that is more than 2000 years old. This Qanat was excavated at the end of the Achaemenid period. It is said that the construction of Qanats has become popular in Iran since the Achaemenid period. Silas, the military commander of Darius I in the conquest of Egypt, built an Qanat in Egypt in 518 BC. Other Egyptian and Syrian Qanats were built during the Roman period.

The Greek Polybius describes an Qanat in the Persian desert in the second century BC. He says the Iranians mysteriously brought water from the depths of the earth to the surface. Vitruvius (80 BC) describes the Qanat in his book and reveals some technical secrets of this engineering phenomenon (Qanat).

In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a French-British tourist named Jean Chardin wrote: The Iranians were not only able to locate the exact location of the water, but also had the ability to transport water up to a distance of 60 km or sometimes more.

What is an Qanat?

Several thousand years ago, the ancient Iranians invented a new system called the Qanat. The Qanat is an underground passageway that carries water from the groundwater aquifer to lower lands. The Qanat consists of several wells. These wells, which are drilled vertically on a sloping surface, are connected to each other underground with a gentler slope. The first well is called the mother well. The mother well, which is usually submerged in an alluvial cone, is deeper than the groundwater level. The Qanat system is similar to an ant nest. Because it starts from the foot of the mountain and continues to the desert where the water is collected.

Qanat structure:


A corridor or tunnel is an Qanat that is dug to access groundwater aquifers and transfer water to the ground. The dimensions of this corridor are almost horizontal in such a way as to allow workers to work and move easily. The height of the corridor is about 90 to 150 cm and its width is almost less than half of its height.

Qanat exit

the place where the Qanat corridor and the surface of the earth are integrated, is called Qanat output. This place is also called Mazhar (the place where the water appears).

Well shaft

Vertical wells that are dug to the Qanat corridor to connect the ground floor and the horizontal corridor of the Qanat is called. shafts have many uses. Their main use is to drain the soil resulting from digging the Qanat corridor. They also help ventilate and supply oxygen to workers. These wells help to send the required facilities and tools and discharge waste more easily. Hence the time and cost required for repairs and construction. These well shafts are drilled with a diameter between 80 to 100 cm.

Mother well

The farthest and deepest well shaft from the Qanat outlet that is dug in the upstream points is called mother well. The high flow of water in the mother well indicates the good flow of the Qanat. If the water level decreases and reaches below the mother well, water will no longer flow in the corridor of the Qanat and the Qanat will dry up. The depth of the mother well is different in different Qanats. The deepest mother well in Iran is excavated in Qasbeh Gonabad Qanat with about 300 meters.

Qanat-related structures


One of the structures related to the Qanat is Payab. Payab is a place of access to Qanat water. Payab is located in the courtyards of houses and mosques. The important thing about enduring is its very cool weather in summer. The bottoms have been used as refrigerators for food storage and in some cases for naps.

Windbreaker (Bad gir)

In houses, windbreaks are built on the Qanat. The use of wind deflectors is to circulate the air. The air that passes through the water of the Qanat cools the room. The combination of these two buildings (windbreak and running water of the Qanat) can be seen in most of the houses in the desert cities of Iran.

Investigation of Iranian Qanats

The deepest Qanat in Iran and the world

Qasbeh Qanat (Gonabad)

Qasbeh Qanat is an amazing phenomenon in Gonabad city. The Qasbeh Qanat dates back to 2500 to 2700 years ago. The length of this Qanat is 33. Its mother well is 350 meters deep, which is known as the deepest Qanat in the world. The Qanat water flow rate is about 150 liters per second and is almost constant throughout the year.

The longest Qanat in Iran

Zarch Qanat (Yazd)

The longest Qanat in Iran, “Zarch”, is in Yazd city. This Qanat is 100 km long. The number of wells is 2115. Its wells have been drilled at a depth of 23 meters. The Qanat is estimated to be up to three thousand years old in the Zoroastrian period. This Qanat is located next to the Yazd Grand Mosque.

Unfortunately, this Qanat has dried up due to the excessive digging of deep wells in the Qanat area, and only one of its branches is active.

The most special Qanat in the world

Our Qanat (Ardestan)

“Moon” Qanat is located in Ardestan city, Isfahan province. This Qanat is the only two-story Qanat in the world. The surprise of this Qanat is that the water of one of its floors does not penetrate the other. This 2,500-year-old Qanat has a water storage dam. Therefore, it is able to store agricultural water for four months. Experts consider the Qanat to be one of the masterpieces of engineering in ancient times in terms of observing the principles of drilling.

Qanat dating back to prehistoric Iran

Varzan Qanat

Varzan Qanat is about 3,000 years old. This Qanat is located in the city of Varzan, Isfahan. According to Japanese experts, this Qanat is one of the rarest Qanats in the world. This Qanat has a dam. The dam has a capacity of about 3,200 cubic meters of water for 120 days.

The first Qanat without a well

Ghias Abad Qanat

Ghias Abad Qanat is 350 to 400 meters long. The Qanat dates back to 1000 years ago. The use of this Qanat was to transfer water from one side of the mountain to the other, which is an agricultural field. Due to the special conditions of the Qanat, no wells have been dug in it.

The only conical Qanat in the world

Ibrahim Abad Qanat

Ibrahim Abad Arak Qanat is one of the masterpieces of Iranian art. This Qanat dates back to the sixth and seventh centuries AH. To dig an Qanat, a circle with a radius of one meter is dug and this circle becomes deeper. But the wonder of this Qanat is that it is conical in shape; The more the well goes down ،the wider and larger the well becomes.

The number of aqueducts in Iran is about 36,300. After many efforts, in 2016, 11 Iranian aqueducts were finally registered with UNESCO. Unique features, including the deepest, longest and strangest, are the reasons for registering these aqueducts. Visiting this attractive architecture and engineering will be fascinating for any viewer.

 By joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular Qanats.

Sassanid Archaeological Landscape

Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region

Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region

The Sasanian archaeological landscape of Fars includes the most valuable historical, architectural and urban planning related to the Sasanian era (224 to 658 AD), which are located in the historical areas of Firouzabad, Bishapur and Sarvestan.

The Sasanian archaeological landscape of Fars region with 8 significant architectural works, two historical cities, 8 reliefs, a castle and two palaces has been registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

According to archeological studies, Fars province plays an important role in the 400-year rule of the Sassanids and contains the most Monuments from the Sassanid period (about 3000 Monuments).

The most important Sasanian Monument in Fars province, which connects Sasanian and Islamic architecture, is the world’s first dome in Firozabad.

The Sasanian archaeological landscape of Fars region is a representation of the history of Iran during the Sasanian era.

 This collection of Monuments represents Iranian urban planning, art, architecture and lithography, which has its roots in the pre-Sasanian period, especially the Parthian period. But you can see the influence of Roman and even Greek art, especially in the ancient city of Bishapur. The method of building porches, the first domes on square buildings, using clay with sarooj is one of the architectural features of this historical period.

The art of Stone carving was used in Iran from the Elamite period and before that to show the power and glory of the kingdom, but this art reached its peak in the Sassanid period. The Sassanians used the art of stone carving to narrate important historical events.

 Many researchers believe that the first model of Iranian dome building was implemented in the Fire Temple of Gore and evolved during the Sassanid era. Dome construction reached its peak in the Islamic period.

Many of Monuments of this area are related to the period of Shahpur, one of the greatest kings in the history of Iran. One of the important historical events of Iran is the series of battles between Iran and Rome during the Shahpur period, the feedback of which can be found in Tang Chogan and the city of Bishapur. After a battle with the Romans, Shahpur captured the Roman legionaries and their emperor and used them to build the city of Bishapur.

Sasanians had deep religious beliefs. Their deep ties with Zoroastrians made the beliefs of this religion reach the peak of its power in the history of Iran during this period.

Ardashir Investiture Relief

The petroglyph of Ardeshir and Ahuramazda is one of the most beautiful and healthy motifs surviving from the Sasanian period. In this petroglyph, Ahuramazda and Ardeshir Babkan are standing in front of each other. Ahuramazda gives the king’s ring to Ardeshir from the altar of fire and elects him to be king. Behind Ardeshir’s head, the crown prince (Shapur) and two other princes are standing.

Ardeshir Babakan’s victory petroglyph

A petroglyph related to the Sasanian period, in which the scene of the victorious battle of Ardeshir Babakan with the last Parthian king is engraved. This petroglyph is 18 meters long and 4 meters high and is considered the largest surviving petroglyph in Iran. This Monument was carved on top of a rock in Firozabad and around the Firozabad River.

Shahpour Cave

Shapur Cave the other sassanid archaeological landscape is located 6 km from the historical city of Bishabur in “Sine Kouh” at an altitude of about 800 meters. The statue of Shapur with a height of 6 meters and a weight of 30 tons is located at its entrance. This masterpiece of ancient Iranian sculpture still remains after nearly 1700 years, but its two hands are broken. This statue was overturned due to an earthquake, which was repaired and returned to its original state by the Iranian army without considering the principles of archeology.

Aradashir khurreh (gur)

The abandoned city of gur is located three kilometers from Firozabad. gur (Aradashir khurreh) was built in the beginning of the 3rd century AD by the order of Ardeshir Babkan. This circular city is designed with a diameter of 2 kilometers. The city has four main gates and government buildings and residences of courtiers were located in it.The city of gur is considered the first circular city in Iran and the world.

Ardeshir Papakan Palace

Ardeshir Papakan Palace was built in the third century AD by Ardeshir Babakan, one of the founders of the Sassanid dynasty and sassanid archaeological landscape. Ardeshir Papakan Palace dates back to more than 1800 years ago.

Some experts believe that Ardeshir Papakan Palace was not used as a palace in the distant past and was originally a fire temple. Due to the location of the palace by the water, experts believe that the palace was originally a place to worship Anahita, the goddess of water.

  The base of the palace is 104 meters by 55 meters and tiles, plaster and half-hewn stones were used for its construction. The use of these materials has made the architecture inside the palace more beautiful. The building is so strong that it is still standing after 1800 years, and despite the damage caused during the era, it still has the dome of its porches.

 The construction of buildings with domes was not common in the Sassanid era, therefore Ardeshir Papakan Palace is the first building of the Sassanid sassanid archaeological landscape that used domes in its architecture and has 4 domes.

Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region have been registered in the world list of UNESCO and by joining the UNESCO tours organized by Oak Travel agency, visit these special and spectacular Places. sassanid archaeological landscape

yazd | Amir chakhmaq mosque

Amir chakhmaq mosque


Amir chakhmaq mosque

Amir Chakhmaq Mosque is one of the most beautiful mosques in Iran, which was built by order of an Iranian woman. This mosque is located in Amir Chakhmaq complex. Amir Chakhmaq Mosque is known as one of the most important mosques in Yazd city(all thing about Yazd) due to its beautiful architecture and exterior and interior design, and it has been named the New Grand Mosque of Yazd.

Who was Amir Chakhmaq?

According to the available history (Amir Jalaluddin Shami) known as Amir Chakhmaq was one of the commanders of Shahrokh Teymouri. He was elected by Shahrokh Teymouri as the ruler of Yazd.

The most important reason for Amir Chakhmaq’s fame is his admirable actions, which he took with his wife to develop Yazd. “Fatemeh Khatoon” or “Seti Fatemeh” was the wife of Amir Chakhmaq who played an important role in the construction of the historical complex of Amir Chakhmaq in Yazd.

Amir Chakhmaq Mosque is the first building that the couple built. The construction of this mosque started before Amir Chakhmaq came to power. The construction of this mosque and its decorations took 20 years. As it was said, this mosque is located in Amir Chakhmaq complex. This complex includes a large square where the mosque – Tekiyeh – Ab Anbar is located.

Amir Chakhmaq Mosque has two doors, one of which faces the square and the other opens into the surrounding alleys. There is an inscription in this mosque on which the year of the end of the construction of the mosque is written.

Architecture of Amir Chakhmaq Mosque

The building of this mosque has only one porch. But at first glance, it may be seen as a four-porch building. This mosque is built with a plate and a dome. The interesting point in the architecture of this building is that this mosque has no minaret.

Historians have two different views on the lack of a minaret in this mosque

Some historians believe that the first reason was that in the past they did not build minarets for mosques built by a woman. Other historians consider the second reason to be the difference between Shiite and Sunni mosques.

It is said that this mosque was built in order to create unity among Muslims without a minaret.

Mosque entrance doors

One of the doors of the mosque opens towards the square. There is an inscription on the entrance of this part. A corridor connects the entrance to the courtyard of the mosque. In this corridor, windows with delicate grids of mosaic tiles are installed. The high entrance of the mosque on the east side is one of the most beautiful parts of this building.

Numerous religious expressions are executed in Kufic script with blue and green tiles on a brick background.

Dome of Amir Chakhmaq Mosque

The dome of the mosque is one of the types of curved and cracked domes. The exterior of the dome is decorated with turquoise tiles. On the base of the dome is an inscription in Kufic script with green and blue tiles.

The nave of Amir Chakhmaq Mosque

Amir Chakhmaq Mosque in Yazd has a summer nave with a very beautiful altar. There is a windbreak on top of this altar. The altar of Amir Chakhmaq Mosque is one of the most beautiful altars of historical mosques in Iran. There is a beautiful marble in the center of this altar.

This altar has a very delicate and artistic work of Mogharnas, which is executed with mosaic tiles in azure, white and gold colors. There are arches on either side of the nave that connect to the back aisles.

On the high porch of the nave, there are Islamic motifs with green and brown tiles on a blue background. The winter naves of the mosque are located on both sides of the entrance corridor of the mosque. It seems that the reflection of light on marble is considered as the source of light in this part of the mosque.