Amir Chakhmaq Complex in Yazd is the name of a square in the historical context of Yazd. This square is composed of different sections such as bazaar, reliance, mosque and water storage. All these sections date back to the Timurid era.
Amir Chakhmaq Square is a ninth-century work created by Amir Jalaluddin Chakhmaq. he, who was one of the commanders of the Timurid government, with the help of his wife, built the Amir Chakhmaq complex for the development of Yazd and built this large square in front of it. This square has been renovated many times throughout history and during the time of different kings.
These repairs have caused many changes in its texture and structure. The most important building in this complex is the New Grand Mosque.
After a while, the square and mosque were named Amir Chakhmaq. During the Safavid period and during the reign of Shah Abbas, many changes were made to the reconstruction of this complex, the most important of which was the construction of a four-dimensional caravanserai.
During the Safavid period and during the reign of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, parts of the nave were added and parts were restored.
Amir Chaghmaq Mosque was also called the New Grand Mosque or Duhok Mosque.This mosque is the oldest building in this square and was built during the Timurid period by the efforts of Amir Jalaluddin Chaghmaq Shami, the ruler of Yazd, one of the rulers and commanders of Shahrokh and his wife Seti Fatemeh Khatoon. Amir Chakhmaq Mosque is the second mosque in Yazd in terms of beauty and size.
The construction of this mosque in the year 841 AH. AH is over.
Part of the entrance of the porch of this mosque is decorated with tiles and mosaics in which inscriptions can be seen. Also, the main altar of the mosque is made of mosaic tiles and consists of Mogharnas buildings. In the middle of this altar, marble is very well carved. An interesting point about Amir Chakhmaq Mosque is that this mosque has two summer and winter naves that have been used according to the weather conditions.
This mosque is located on the south side of Amir Chakhmaq Square, and in the part of the building in front of the entrance of the mosque that opens to the square, a stone has been installed on which the text of the endowment letter in Naqrbar script has been written.
On the side of the north corridor, delicate nets of mosaic tiles are installed in the windows. Part of the entrance of the porch plate is mosaic and its rafters are brick colored. The outer circumference of the dome and on its belt the phrase “Sultan Zal Allah…” is repeated in Kufic masonry.
The altar is the main stage of mosaic tiles with a Mogharnas building with a beautifully carved marble in the middle, and a square flower measuring 54 x 95 cm in the middle of the Mogharnas, and a marble in its left hand. It is installed in the size of 28 x 30 cm. The east side of the mosque has inscriptions of mosaic tiles in the third line of Muhammad al-Hakim.
The dome of the mosque is curved and cracked with green tiles and around it there is an inscription in Kufic script. During the reign of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, Haji Hossein Attar added a part to the nave of the mosque and also repaired parts of the mosque.
his pillar is located on the east side of Amir Chakhmaq Square, which was used to sit kings in the royal part and women in other pavilions. This building has three floors and is famous for its exterior with arched emperors.
The middle part of this pillar is higher than other arches, and the reason for this is probably that this part was a place for the elders of the city to be in the center of the pillar as the most senior government officials and watch the taziyeh.
The minarets are located above the middle part, which has given it a special glory. At that time, the muezzins used to go to the top of these minarets and say the call to prayer.
Another historical feature of Amir Chakhmaq Square is the very large and historic palm, which is located in the east of this square and is known as the Heydari palm.
According to experts, this palm has been in this place since the Safavid period about 450 years ago, and some believe that this palm is the oldest palm tree available.
This palm is a huge wooden coffin that is carried by the people in a ceremony called palm carving.
This palm is made of a lattice set of carved wood with porcelain knots and large beams, and its general design is in the shape of a cypress tree, which is a symbol of freedom.
Seti Fatemeh Khatoon is the name of Amir Chakhmaq’s wife, the founder of a very beautiful and large collection of Amir Chakhmaq, who has made great efforts to develop this region. This lady, whose tomb is located in the north of this square, died in the ninth century.
In the historical complex of Amir Chakhmaq, there are three water reservoirs, one of which is called Ab Anbar Maidan, and now there are two reservoirs that are referred to as historical monuments.
These reservoirs were still used by the people about 40 years ago; But it is not used at the moment. The water reservoir of the square, which was built by the order of Amirchakhmaq along with the magnificent mosque on the west side of the square, was destroyed during the construction of the street, and no trace of it can be seen at present.
The first reservoir is known as the reservoir of Panj Badgir or Seti Fatemeh, which was built by the ruler of Yazd at the time and for the use of the people. Another reservoir is Tekiyeh or Haji Ghanbar reservoir, which was built next to the bazaar with the consent of Amir Chakhmaq and at the order and expense of Nizamuddin Haji Ghanbar Jahanshahi in the bazaar.