A city proud of having a history that shows a particular civilization in the past. A city that shows its humility with authority. A city that brought about great changes in Iranian literature by training great poets. It gave its poets a climate in its beautiful nature so that they could become poets by releasing their emotions, and then introduced all those poets to the world with their own poems.

History of Shiraz

shiraz |

History of naming Shiraz

There are several narrations about the construction of Shiraz. According to the Islamic Encyclopedia, Shiraz is a city built during the Islamic era in a place that has been a permanent human settlement since Sassanid times or probably before that. The next theory is that Shiraz ibn Tahmurth built this city and named it the city of Persia. Some other narrations indicate that Muhammad ibn Qasim ibn Aqeel and other people have attempted to rebuild this city. However, the name of Shiraz was first seen on Elamite clay tablets dating to 2000 BC. Digging was found in the southwest of the city to build a brick kiln. In these tablets, the existence of a city called Tirazis in ancient Ilam is mentioned. In these written tablets, a city called Tirazis is mentioned.The name of Shiraz has also been seen on pottery and seals of the Sassanid period. In Persepolis, Elamite tablets have been discovered that bear the name of Shiraz as “ish-si-ra-Ti, is-si-Shir, ish-si-is-ra -Ti ish-si-is-ra-Shi “. There is another theory to study the naming of Shiraz is that Shiraz is made of two words shir and raz. The word shir is based on the root of the word meaning goodness, but this theory is rejected for some reason. According to Tedesco data, Shiraz means the center of good grapes, but the same theory has been rejected due to some issues. Although Islamic historians believe that Shiraz was founded in the first century AH by Abdul Malik Marwan, it should be noted that there was a city with a close name to the name of Shiraz before Islam in or near the city, which gave its name to the current city. Shiraz is given. According to the list provided by Limbert, Shahbazi and Arthur Arbery, there are several signs of permanent residence in the Shiraz plain and around the present site of Shiraz in pre-Islamic times, such as stone paintings from the early Sassanid period, references to the existence of ancient fire temples and castles. The name of Shah Mobad and the artifacts discovered in the Sassanid fortress in the current location of Abu Nasr Palace can confirm the existence of this city in the past. Shahbazi says evidence shows that Shiraz was a populous city until the end of the Sassanid period and was probably an administrative center. Arthur Arbery concludes that the area of Shiraz, no matter how large, was under the control of the Iranians during the time of Darius and after the invasion of Alexander the Great, the name of Shiraz came to the center of Firoozabad with Ardeshir Khoreh of the Sassanid period and Shiraz It has been. Ardeshir Khoreh was one of the five parts that formed the Sassanid Pars province. Sassanid Persian province included Fars province, Yazd, Persian Gulf and its islands and part of present-day Khuzestan and was conquered during the Arab invasions of Basra between 640 and 653 AD. There was no city in present-day Shiraz at that time. But around present-day Shiraz, there were castles that were conquered by the Arabs in 641 AD. During this period, the Arabs prepared several attacks from the fort to the pool. Estakhr, the capital of Persia, resisted until 653 AD. “The main city of Persia, Estakhr, had close ties with the Sassanid dynasty and the Zoroastrian religion. “The Arab rulers wanted to establish a rival and Islamic center in their newly conquered territory.” When the Arabs founded the city of Shiraz, they founded the city in a way that is bigger than Isfahan. According to Shahbazi, due to the location of Shiraz at the intersection of roads leading to Yazd, Kerman, Khuzestan, Isfahan and the Persian Gulf, Shiraz became a base in Fars and the seat of government and senior military and administrative agents, and for two centuries the governors’ residence. The Arab was Persian. However, for two centuries, Shiraz was Estakhr Under the supervision of a competitor. But gradually the importance of the city of Estakhr was transferred to Shiraz. Little information is available from this period, but it is clear that Shiraz did not have a mosque until the ninth century AD. That is, until the Saffarids made Shiraz the capital of their government.

Food in Shiraz

In Iran, despite the common food between all cities, each city has its own food and Shiraz food is one of the foods that introduces you to different flavors. You can experience these delicious flavors based on the fashion climate in Shiraz. During your trip to Shiraz, be sure to taste the food of Shiraz in your meals. The variety and quality of food in this city is very high and these foods will give you the best feeling considering the climate of Shiraz.

Geographical location OF Shiraz      

Shiraz is the capital of Fars province, which is located in the southwest of Iran and in the center of this province. The length of Shiraz city is 40 km and its width can be changed from 15 to 30 km and its area is 1268 square kilometers in a rectangular shape which is limited from the west to Drak mountain, Bamoo, Sabzpooshan, Babakohi and Chehel Maqam. The north of this enclosure, next to the mountains, has given a special position to the city of Shiraz. The geographical coordinates of Shiraz are 29 degrees and 36 minutes north and 52 degrees and 32 minutes and its altitude in different parts of the city varies between 1480 to 1670 meters.


Shiraz weather

The average temperature in Shiraz is about 30 degrees Celsius in summer, 5 degrees Celsius in winter, 17 degrees Celsius in spring and 20 degrees Celsius in autumn, and the average annual temperature is 18 degrees Celsius. The annual rainfall of Shiraz is 337.8 mm and the best season in terms of climate to travel to this city is spring. Shiraz climate in spring is accompanied by cool and very mild winds. Of course, in this season, you will also face scattered rains. In general, the average temperature in the spring days of Shiraz is 17 degrees Celsius. Regarding the weather of Shiraz in spring, you should know that this season is the best time for tourism in Shiraz and visiting the attractions of this city. A relatively mild weather along with beautiful nature. Usually, the best months to enjoy the spring weather of Shiraz are late April and early May. During these months, the gardens of Shiraz are in their most beautiful shape and attract many tourists. Shiraz climate is hot and dry in summer. Shiraz weather is very pleasant in autumn. Traveling to mountainous and forested cities can be difficult in late autumn, when the weather gets a little colder. In this season, you can enjoy the rain and make unique memories of your trip by walking in the streets of the city. In autumn, the city is filled with yellow autumn leaves that give a beautiful face to the environment. In winter, you may face rain and even snow. When you pass by the gardens of Shiraz in winter, you will encounter a large number of these beautiful flowers that change the appearance of the city.

Culture in Shiraz

Culture in Shiraz has a special role in Iranian culture and is considered the “capital culture of Iran”. The native culture of Shiraz is very rich and has a special place. Shiraz local costume, Shiraz local game, Shiraz local song, Shiraz people language and various ceremonies such as weddings, Nowruz and other customs and rituals of Shiraz are a sign of the rich and ancient culture of this city. Shiraz is the cultural capital of Iran and the second literary city in the world. The people of Shiraz are very warm-hearted, sociable and hospitable. Another characteristic of the people of Shiraz is that they are happy and have fun, that they live a very happy life and are very cheerful, regardless of their worries. The language of the people of Shiraz is Persian, they speak Persian with a pleasant Shirazi accent. It is interesting to know that Shirazi 23 dialect is consistent and according to research, Shirazians are more familiar with older dialects than this dialect. Of course, the appearance of Hafez and Saadi and their influence on the decline of the former dialect of the people and the appearance of new Persian in the language of the people of Shiraz cannot be ignored. The people of Shiraz, like other ethnic groups in Iran, have their own local dress. One of the examples of local clothes in Shiraz is the clothes of nomads. The colors and designs of nomadic women’s clothing are inspired by nature and include very cheerful and beautiful colors. Nomadic women’s clothing includes hats, archangels, trousers, slippers, scarves, shirts and skirts. Nomadic men’s clothing also includes hats, shirts, archangels, waist scarves, chikas, and kopecks. Another local women’s dress, especially the wedding dress in the south of Fars province in the city of Oz, is sewn by artists and is called Khosbafi, which some believe came from India. Khos is woven from silver fibers which is used to decorate pants, scarves, shirts and vests of women and girls. Shiraz has been one of the tourist cities of Iran since ancient times. The natural, historical and religious attractions of Shiraz attract many travelers to Shiraz.If you are interested in nature, Fars province is full of beauties that you can easily find in this place and you can Calm your soul. Shiraz is famous not only in the field of nature but also in the field of historical places. In Shiraz, you can see a part of the history and civilization of Iran in the form of special tastes of Iranians in literature, both in the construction of buildings and in colors.


The most important tourist Attractions of Shiraz, which represent the civilization of Iran.


The name is one of the ancient regions of Fars province, which is located near the city of Shiraz. This place is a collection of several large palaces, entrance and exit gates and many stairs. This complex dates back to the reign of the Achaemenid Empire. The founder of this complex was Darius the Great, who considers this region of Fars as his travel region in Fars province. After Darius the Great, his children and grandchildren completed the construction of this complex during his reign. This complex was set on fire during the invasion of Alexander the Great, and now there are ruins of this complex that, despite being a ruin, still show the beauty and grandeur of the past. This collection was registered in 1979 as one of Iran’s works in UNESCO.

read more information and history about Persepolis.

Qavam garden

The Ghavam complex was built between 1257 and 1267, during the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar, by order of Ali Mohammad Khan Ghavam, and consisted of two outer parts (the Naranjestan Museum) and an inner part (the house of Zinat al-Muluk), which were connected by a tunnel. The building was used as a center for government, political and military affairs, and meetings with representatives of foreign governments. The Narenjestan building was donated to Shiraz University in 1345, and between 1348 and 1358 it was in the possession of the Asian Institute, under the supervision of Professor Arthur Opham Pope, a famous Iranologist.

Jahan Nama Garden

Jahan Nama Garden was very beautiful and full of plants during the reigns of Al-Muzaffar and Al-Inju. This process continued until before Timur Gurkhani’s attack. Ibn Arabshah, the historian of Timur’s lifetime, has called this garden Zinta al-Dunya in his book Ajaib al-Maqdur. Jahan Nama Garden was noticed by Timur Gurkhani during his stay in Shiraz, so that he built a similar garden around Samarkand, which was Timur’s birthplace, and called it ” Jahan Nama “. Jahan Nama in Persian means the world representer.

Eram garden

Eram Garden is one of the tourist attractions of Shiraz, which has created a special beauty through citrus trees and a long street with magnificent cedars on both sides. Eram Garden of Shiraz with an area of 110,380 square meters was nationally registered on November 5, 1974. This garden is known today as the Botanical Garden of Shiraz.

Delgosha garden     

This garden was of special importance during the Safavid period. This garden was in its best condition during the time of Timur Gurkhani. This situation was such that as Timur Gorgani, saw this garden, ordered a place to be built  with the same name and the same shape in samarghand city. This garden was badly damaged at that time, but with the beginning of Zandieh’s rule, this garden became important again. Some of the buildings in this garden belong to the Qajar period.

Afif Abad garden

Afif abad Garden is one of the oldest gardens in Shiraz. This garden was built during the Safavid period, then this garden was purchased by Mirza Ali Khan Ghavam-ol-Molk during the Qajar period and was rebuilt. With the beginning of the Pahlavi rule, this garden was given as a gift to the queen (Farah Pahlavi), but in 1340 AH, this garden was purchased by the Iranian army with great difficulty. Afif Abad Garden is still in the possession of the army. The mansion now serves as a museum of weapons of war.

Nasir al-Mulk Mosque

Nasir Al-Molk Mosque is one of the most beautiful mosques in Shiraz, which dates back to the Qajar period. This mosque was built by order of Mirza Hassan Ali, nicknamed Nasir Al-Molk, who was one of the great men of the Qajar dynasty. The architecture of this place was Mohammad Mashed. The construction period of the building was about 12 years, from 1293 to 1305 AH. The infrastructure of the mosque is equal to 2212 square meters and its area is equal to 2980 square meters.

Jameh Atigh Mosque

Archaeological excavations show that the mosque was built on the remains of old fire temples, and even the plan of the previous building was influential in the design of the mosque. This is an old place of worship from the pre-Islamic period; However, due to the limitations of the excavations, it is not clear to which historical period it belongs. The construction of this mosque belongs to the reign of Amrolith Saffari, the second ruler of the Saffarid dynasty between the years 265 AH to 287 AH. The building of this mosque has been restored many times during its life, and many of these restorations are of considerable antiquity.

Vakil mosque

In the western part of Vakil Bazaar, there is an old and beautiful mosque that was built during the reign of Zandieh and by Karim Khan Zand. The design of Vakil Mosque is a design with two southern naves. This mosque was registered in the list of national monuments of Iran on July 9, 1931 with a registration number.According to the documents, the date of construction of the mosque dates back to 1187 AH and coincided with the construction of the square and the bazaar. According to historical quotations and texts, this mosque was renovated by Hussein Ali Mirza Farmanfarma (son of Fath Ali Shah Qajar).

Now Mosque     

Now Shiraz Mosque, also known as Atabak Shiraz Mosque and Shiraz Now Grand Mosque, is one of the mosques of the Atabak period and the second most valuable historical mosque in Shiraz. This mosque is the largest mosque in Iran and this mosque has been registered as one of the national monuments.

Moshir Ol'Molk Mosque

This mosque was built between 1265 and 1274 AH by the order of Mirza Abul Hassan Khan Mushir al-Mulk. In the upper part of this mosque, there is a high arch on which the verses of the Quran are written in large letters. Above this arch there are two large garlands.In the eastern part of this mosque, there is a high arch that is made of Mogharnas tiles. This building was registered as one of the national monuments of Iran on May 15, 1351 with the number 911.

Tomb of Hafez

This place, which is known by this name because of the location of Hafez’s tomb, is located in the north of Shiraz city and south of the Quran Gate, in one of the cemeteries of Shiraz called “Khak Mosalla”. Khajeh Shams al-Din Mohammad Hafez Shirazi, a great poet of the eighth century Iran and one of the famous speakers in the world, whose sonnets are well-known and special. He has a special place among Iranians due to his mystical poems. Today, with many changes that began in 2007, this collection has expanded. Tomb of Hafez is not limited to the tomb of Hafez and has different sections that benefit from beautiful architecture and green space. The area of ​​this place is about two hectares and its scenes are separated by a hall. The Tomb of Hafez Hall dates back to the Zandieh era, which is 56 meters long and eight meters wide and has 20 stone pillars, each of which reaches a height of five meters. The architecture of this place is in the style of Achaemenid and Zandian architecture.

Khwaju Kermani Tomb

Kamaluddin Abolta, known as Khawju Kermani, was born in 689 AH in Kerman province. He was one of the poets of the Mongol era and died in 752 AH in Shiraz. Khawju Kermani’s tomb is located in front of the Quran Gate.

Sheikh Roozbehan      

Sheikh Roozbehan was born in 322 AH in Fasa and after spending 84 years, he passed away in 606 AH in Shiraz. He practiced austerity, struggle and worship for seven years in Bamavi mountain of Shiraz, at that time he memorized the whole Quran. After that, he preached in the Atiq Grand Mosque for 50 years and reached a high position in mysticism and Sufism. He is also known as Sheikh Shatah. About 30 works have been left by this person. Sheikh Roozbehan is one of the great mystics of the sixth century and the tomb of Sheikh Roozbehan is one of the sights of Shiraz. The construction of this place dates back to about 800 years ago. The tomb of Sheikh is actually a place that was once the monastery of Sheikh Roozbehan.

Tomb of Saadi

This mansion is the tomb of the great Shirazi poet Saadi, and other great men are buried around this tomb, according to their wills. This tomb was registered in the National Monuments of Iran on November 11, 1974 under the number 1010.3. This place was originally Saadi Monastery and he spent the rest of his life in it. Karim Khan Zand ordered that a building be erected in Saadi’s tomb. Over time, the tomb was built and restored. The current structure of this tomb was built in 1330 and its main infrastructure is 258 square meters.


Tomb of Baba Koohi     

Baba Koohi’s tomb is located at the foot of a mountain in the northern mountains of Shiraz. This tomb dates back to the Al-Buwayh period. The mountain where the tomb is located is known as Baba Koohi Mountain or Sabavi Mountain. There are two caves in this mountain, one of them was the residence of a mystic in the past and the other is now the tomb of Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abdullah known as Ibn Bakuyeh. In front of the cave is a porch made of stone and plaster. There is a piece of stone in this porch on which a phrase is written and at the end of it the date 1235 is mentioned. Sheikh Abu Abdullah is known as Baba Koohi, who received the title of Baba because he was a mystic. Since this person spent part of his life in the mountains and the mountain is called kooh in Persian, this person was called koohi which means mountain man. This person was born in 337 AH and died in 442 AH.

Shah Cheragh Shrine

Shahcheragh is the brother of Imam Reza and the eldest son of Imam Musa Kazem, whose tomb is the largest religious shrine in Shiraz. This shrine with special tile designs and the juxtaposition of different mirrors with different sizes and colors has created a special beauty in this place. This tomb of  Shahcheragh, which was registered in the list of national monuments of Iran in 1321. This tomb is very important in terms of Islamic art and architecture. The architectural style of this building is derived from the style of Azeri architecture. This style of architecture was widely used in the Elkhani period. On some of the walls of this building you can see Quranic verses written in beautiful handwriting.

Bibi Dokhtaran Shrine      

The bibi dokhtaran shrine has a religious aspect and it has located at the north of the Moshir Mosque and was built during the time of Zandieh. The order to build the building was issued by a woman from the sultans of the time. The order to build the building was issued by a woman from the sultans of that time. The building was later destroyed by an earthquake until it was rebuilt by Mohammad Qoli Khan Ilkhani. The current mansion belongs to the patriarchal period. This tomb is located in an alley branching from Shahid Dastgheib Street, behind the Beit al-Abbas Mosque and near the Ilkhani Mosque. This work was registered as one of the national works of Iran on July 12, 1968 with the registration number 422.

Zinat Al-Molk Historical House

Zinat al-Muluk House is one of the Qajar historical houses in Shiraz, the construction of which began around 1290 AH by Ali Mohammad Khan Qawam al-Mulk II and ended in 1302 AH. This house, which was the residence of Zinta al-Muluk Ghavami, the daughter of Ghavam al-Molk IV, is located on the west side of one of the most famous places of interest in Shiraz, the Ghavam Narenjestan Garden, and is connected to the garden by an underground road. The mansion is decorated with beautiful plaster mirrors, and paintings of animals, birds, and painted flowers and shrubs can be painted on the wooden roof of the house. The house of Zinat al-Muluk was registered in the list of national monuments of Iran on December 31, 1351, number 938.

Shapouri House     

This mansion is related to the Pahlavi era and a combination of Iranian and European architecture can be seen in it. In this complex, the natural effects of the garden and the beautiful architecture of the building together have created a beautiful image.

Saadat house      

Saadat House is one of the historical houses of Shiraz and has a large central yard. This house also has rooms with three or five doors, which are designed with tiles, bricks, plaster and stone and are covered with wooden ceilings. In 2005, with the efforts of the Shiraz Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization, the Khatam Art Museum was established in this complex, and this house became more famous through the museum. Since then, this house has been known as Khatam House. This building has been registered in the list of national monuments of Iran with the number 10481.

Forough Al-Molk historical house

Forough Al-Molk House was built by Forough Al-Molk Ghavami in the late Qajar and early Pahlavi periods. On June 20, 1998, Forough Al-Molk House was registered as one of the national monuments of Iran with the registration number 2040, and its restoration began in 2000. This building was changed to the Museum of Contemporary Persian Art in 2002 after renovation. Today, this museum is known as the Meshkin Pham Museum of Art.

Saber House

Saber House, a beautiful house that belongs to the Qajar period. This house is the oldest house in Shiraz, which was registered as a national monument of Iran in 2003. This house was rebuilt in the Zandieh period by a businessman named Hassan Ali Saber Sangi as a new architectural style. The thing that distinguish this house is the use of beautiful plasters that are placed symmetrically next to each other. These comparisons have been made with great care, and this accuracy is of great value.  Sabraz House has become a museum of traditional and ritual clothes in 2005.

Manteghi Nezhad House

The historical house of Manteghinejad is a magnificent and beautiful mansion that belongs to the Qajar period. This mansion belonged to one of the Shirazi merchants named Manteghinejad. Years later, the impeccable architecture and stunning interior decoration of this house became so popular that the cultural heritage of Iran decided to register its name in the list of national monuments. This collection has a very small area, but in the same small area to You can see the beauty of all the combination of color and architecture. The garden has a small yard with a small pond in the middle of the it. In the southern part of this mansion, you can see the royal room, which is designed with various types of artistic decorations such as Muqarnas work, plastering, painting and mirror work. Each door of this house is decorated with various mosaic designs.

Vakil Historical Bath

It is a historical monument belonging to the زندیه era and is listed as the National Monument of Iran with Number 917. The bath, which offers special beauty with limestone sketches and paintings. Today, the museum is used as a museum of anthropology and ethnography, and in this place, you can see statues of people running the traditions and customs of Iranians.

Shapouri House     

This mansion is related to the Pahlavi era and a combination of Iranian and European architecture can be seen in it. In this complex, the natural effects of the garden and the beautiful architecture of the building together have created a beautiful image.

Quran Gate‌

The Quran Gate is one of the symbols of the influence of the Quran on the life of the Iranian people and is one of the valuable Islamic buildings in Iran. The Quran Gate is located in the northeast of Shiraz, between the Chehel Magham and Baba Koohi mountains. This gate is actually the exit of Shiraz to Marvdasht. The gate of the Qur’an was built during the reign of Az-Dawla Dailami and a Qur’an was placed on it so that those who left the city could pass under the Qur’an. Karim Khan Zand rebuilt the gate and placed two volumes of the Qur’an on top of the room he had built. These Qurans are known as “My Seventeen Qurans” and are kept in the Persian Museum today. During the first Pahlavi period, the old gate of the Quran was destroyed by the order of Reza Shah, and in 1328, new gates were built a short distance from the old gate. The new gate is larger than the previous gate.

Haft Tanan Museum

The garden of Haf Tanan Museum is located at the bottom of Chehel Maqam Mountain. The garden dates back to before Zandieh’s rule. But the mansion in this garden was built during the reign of Karim Khan Zand. The reason for naming is the existence of seven tombs of seven great mystics in the garden, on each of which Karim Khan Zand placed a large stone without an inscription.

Karim khan Zand castle

This large building in Shiraz was built by order of Karim Khan Zand in 1180 AH. This citadel was the place of Karim Khan’s rule and life. After coming to power and choosing Shiraz as his seat of rule, he decided to build a large square such as Naghsh Jahan Square in Isfahan, north of Shiraz. Karim Khan citadel was included in the list of national heritage of Iran in 1351.


Saber House

Saber House, a beautiful house that belongs to the Qajar period. This house is the oldest house in Shiraz, which was registered as a national monument of Iran in 2003. This house was rebuilt in the Zandieh period by a businessman named Hassan Ali Saber Sangi as a new architectural style. The thing that distinguish this house is the use of beautiful plasters that are placed symmetrically next to each other. These comparisons have been made with great care, and this accuracy is of great value.  Sabraz House has become a museum of traditional and ritual clothes in 2005.

The building of Ghavam Maleki Court

Ghavam Maleki Court House is a mansion located around the Karim Khan Citadel and was formerly known as the “Karim Khan Zand Court House”. The mansion dates back to the Qajar period. The court building consists of a large hall with two wooden pillars at the entrance. In the past, instead of these two wooden pillars, there were two stone pillars that were moved to Tehran by Agham Mohammad Khan Qajar. The mansion of Ghavam Maleki’s court was registered as one of the national monuments of Iran on May 20, 1975.

Gahvare Did (Saw Cradle)

This building was built in the Dilimian period and is located at the top of the eastern mountain of the Quran Gate in Shiraz. The general structure of this cradle is similar to the architecture of Sassanid period buildings. There are four gates on the four sides of the building, the length and width of each side is 4 meters and their height is 3 meters; The height of the dome is three and a half meters. The reason for building these four arches on the top of the mountain was to establish a place for surveillance and news. The cradle of vision was registered in the list of national monuments of Iran in 1973. From this cradle, the whole city of Shiraz can be seen.

At the End

     In Shiraz you can also enjoy the natural places of this city. There are several places in Shiraz that have many rivers and trees. Due to the special weather of Shiraz in each season, you can visit these natural places for hours and enjoy the sound of water and the caress of the wind as well as the sound of birds.

If you choose Shiraz as your tourist destination, you can see the ability of Iranians to keep their history and civilization alive. See art and creativity in the existing designs of this city. You can enjoy the climate of Shiraz in the nature of this city and also taste its delicious tastes. Shiraz tourism has hosted many tourists every year and knows well how to please its tourists. Trust Shiraz tourism.